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Acta Scientific Microbiology

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1 COVID-19: An Ongoing Global Epidemic of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2) Infection , Shyamapada Mandal
In December 2019, SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syn-drome coronavirus 2), a novel coronavirus provisionally known as 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), has been emerged in Wuhan (Hubei province, China) causing outbreak of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). The 2019-nCoV, which is geneti-cally different from two previously reported human-infecting β-coronaviruses: SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) and MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus), has been considered as a new β-coronavirus and named as SARS-CoV-2 (subgenus: Sarbecovirus)
2 Some Recent Facts about SARS-CoV-2 , Parul Thapar
Corona viruses are the largest group of virus belonging to the class Nidovirales. Corona viruses (CoVs) are enveloped positive sense single stranded RNA viruses. They are characterized by club-like spikes that project from their surface, an unusually large RNA genome, and a unique replication strategy (Figure 1). Corona viruses causes a variety of diseases in mammals and birds rang-ing from enteritis in cows and pigs and upper respiratory diseases in chickens to potentially lethal human respiratory infections. The corona gets its name due to the spike like projections which gives it the appearance of solar rays or solar corona
3 COVID-19 Associated Pneumonia Overview of Real Time Cases , Muhammad Farhan Saeed
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a newly spread disease started in China and spreading in all over the world. Infected people with the COVID-19 virus experiencing varying levels of respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treat-ment. People with older age group generally (over 50 years), and people with medical problems like heart diseases, diabetes, respi-ratory disease, and are vulnerable to serious illness by this virus exposure. Regalado, 2020 had described three basic and possible measures to stop the Covid-19 disease epidemic. (1) Extraordinary restrictions on free movement and assembly, as well as aggressive testing, this option seems impossible now that the virus is in over 100 countries. (2) Development of vaccine which needs time to make it successful, (3) A third is potentially effective but horrible to consider; the spread of virus, eventually the virus will spread all over and people will have been infected and (if they survive) become immune that the outbreak will bust on its own and harder to find a susceptible host. This phenomenon is known as herd im-munity. If this happened, it has potential to infect 60% of the world population in a spam of one year.
4 Optimization of Diauxienne Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Bioremediation of Soils Polluted by Hydrocarbons , Bassirou Mahamadou Harouna and Othmane Benkortbi
The objective assigned to this study is the optimization of azote nutriment source for the microbial bioremediation to contribute to the fight against environmental pollution through the production of biosurfactants of multidisciplinary interest. This study consists of metabolizing hydrocarbons into biosurfactants using Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 strain in order to control the environmental threat in a batch of 250 ml at 37°C for 48 hours of culture. The optimization tests of nitrogen source showed that within a range of concentration [1 - 8] g/l, the optimum value was 4 g/l for KNO3 with an emulsification index EI24 = 71.45% and an optical density DOX = 0.55 for 46h of culture. The yields obtained Yx/s and Yp/s were of 60.00% and 32.17% respectively with an amount of biosurfactants P = 580 mg, a bioconversion rate θ = 78.47% and a ratio N/C = 0.473. The comparative study between two nitrogen sources such as KNO3 and NH4NO3 for a range of concentration [3 - 4] g/l demonstrated that the best source of nitrogen remains KNO3. Indeed, the kinetic monitoring of the biomass growth, the emulsification index, the biosurfactants productivity and the consumption of the substrate revealed the inhibition of the strain by NH4NO3 after 7 hours of incubation, provoking the degeneration of the strain and slowing the removal of pollutants process. A similar study of NH4NO3 at a concentration of 4 g/l resulted in an emulsification index EI24 = 65.22%, a yields Yx/s = 18.37% and Yp/s = 45.17% and a bioconversion rate θ = 57.36%. The amount of the biosurfactants measured at P = 590 mg for an N/C ratio of 0.739. In fact, the results of this study demonstrated that KNO3 promotes the growth of biomass as well as the production of biosurfactants who play a major role in the enrichment of the soil by solubilizing the toxic elements and maximum removal of hydrocarbons following diauxic phenomena.
5 Extraction and Preliminary Characterization of Potential Antibacterial Agent from Potential Streptomyces cinereoruber sp. Isolated from an Chilika Lake , Anjani K Upadhyay, Debasmita Chatterjee, Madhuri Swain1 and Lopamudra Ray
Streptomyces, isolated from marine and estuarine habitat have been widely recognized as a potential source of antifungal, anti-tumour, anti-bacterial compounds. In the present study, the antimicrobial agent production potential of a Streptomyces cinereorubersp was evaluated. The selective isolation of the strain was carried out on starch casein agar. The primary screening of the Streptomyces isolate was done by cross streak method against pathogenic test strains Escherichia coli MTCC 82, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96, Bacillus cereus IP406 and Salmonella typhi MTCC 734 and Micrococcus luteus and the antimicrobial property against Micrococcus luteus was confirmed. The secondary screening was carried out by using the culture supernatant against the test strain by agar well diffusion method. The growth and antimicrobial production ability of the strain against Micrococcus luteus was studied. The antimicrobial agent production was also observed till pH 11 and NaCl concentration 3% (w/v). The partially purified compound showed a peak similar to streptomycin in HPLC. The culture condition for the production of the compound was opimised.
6 Maprovit 3,6,9: Perfect Companion of Your Immune System to Fight Corona Virus Hit , Bharat Kwatra
The world is shaken by the spread of new coronavirus infec-tions from the beginning of 2020. The new coronavirus, suspected of having come from wild animals, continuously mutates, unlike the coronavirus that causes a cold and penetrates deep into the airway, causing severe respiratory disease.
7 Genome Editing in Gene and Cell-Based Therapies , Saranya Ganapathy and Sanjeev K Gupta
Site-specific genetic modification , for effective treatment of human diseases, has become a realistic possibility after nearly 50 years of research in the field of gene editing/therapy. With the need for introducing exogenous fragment DNA or removing/modifying endogenous gene from/in a specific site in the genome of interest, precise genetic tools are being carefully designed for implementa-tion. Creating Double Stranded Breaks (DSBs) at targeted sites in the genome of interest followed by endogenous cell based repair (Homology Directed Repair (HDR) or Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ)) results in genomic modifications [1]. With this approach, it is possible to carry out gene insertion, augmentation, deletion, gene sequence modification and mutation correction, aiding in the development of better animal disease models, ex vivo and in vivo gene repair and engineered cell based therapies.
8 COVID 19, the Unseen Battle: Are we Ready for it , Afsheen Arif
The world is witnessing an eminence condition which had nev-er been encounter so far, since last century with the advent of the technology and advancement, it was barely rare to see such pan-demic. It has been a new, unique and challenging condition for the whole world including Science. China being the technology king and one of the developed countries, had combat it with grace and courage. The registered cases in China are 81,177 with 3,277 mor-tality rate is 4.03. Italy has been affected the second most country with registered cases of 63,927 with 6,077 mortality rate is 9.05. Spain being the third country with high mortality rate is 6.08 with registered cases 39,637 with 2,696 deaths. Iran has hard hit with deaths of 1,934 out of 24,811 confirmed cases and mortality rate is 7.79. The overall global count for the cases is 393,354 with 17,164 death tolls [1]. The overall mortality rate is 4.36 but all of these are developed and highly technologically advanced countries
9 When Coronavirus (COVID-19) Hits Agriculture Grounds-A Short Review , Jai S Ghosh
The present pandemic with the novel corona virus (CoVID-19) has played havoc with global economy. No country is spared to suffer the next step of the disease and that is a bad recession in virtually every nation. One of the worst hit sector of the economy is the agricultural output from many developed nations as well as in certain developing nations. This is because not only the prolonged lock-down enforced to contain the disease but many farmers and cultivators who either has succumbed to the disease or is still in hospital and hence cannot go to the farm
10 Ecological and Epidemiological Aspects of West Nile Virus in Ukraine , Alla Yushchenko, Jason Farlow and Zinaida Klestova
West Nile fever (WNF) is a viral mosquito-transmitted disease caused by West Nile virus (WNV), a member of the Flaviviridae family. WNV infects an extremely wide range of susceptible hosts and is capable of replicating in mammals, birds, reptiles and am-phibians. The enzootic lifecycle of WNV consists of cycling between mosquitoes and birds and sporadic spillover results in disease in horses and humans. Rare and severe neuroinvasive disease in humans and horses occurs. The epidemic significance of WNV infec-tion is illustrated by its worldwide distribution, variable clinical prognosis of disease, and lack of therapeutic options. In Ukraine, 14 enzootic territories have been identified. While climate conditions, water sources and a large number of avian migratory routes create optimal conditions for the pathogen circulation in the country, the epidemiological status of WNV in Ukraine is poorly defined. Annual introduction of WNV to Ukraine likely occurs via seasonal migratory bird routes that exist regionally between Ukraine and neighboring European countries. The genotype of historical avian Ukrainian isolate exhibits the Lineage 2 genotype, however, only limited WNV genome sequences from Ukraine are available. Enhanced viral surveillance and serologic diagnosis of WNF in Ukraine is warranted and remains an essential measure for a clear understanding of the current epidemic situation and the prediction of possible WNV outbreaks in the future
11 Chloroquine as Reposition Drugs for Novel Coronavirus SARS-COV-2 Emergence , Indranil Chatterjee and Manas Chakraborty
sistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, Birbhum Pharmacy School, Birbhum, West Bengal, India2Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Calcutta Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and Allied Health Sciences, Howrah, West Bengal, India*Corresponding Author: Indranil Chatterjee, Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, Birbhum Pharmacy School, Birbhum, West Bengal, India and Manas Chakraborty Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Calcutta Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and Allied Health Sciences, Howrah, West Bengal, India.Short CommunicationReceived: March 30, 2020Published: April 14, 2020© All rights are reserved by Indranil Chatterjee and Manas Chakraborty.A movement to reposition tablets has been initiated in current years [1]. In this strategy, it is vital to use tablets which have been tested to be harmless and whose pharmacokinetics and most ad-vantageous dosage are well known. In the current episode of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emergence [2], we find a wonderful ex- enough of possible repositioning of tablets, especially chloroquine. We had 20 years ago proposed to systematically check chloroquine in viral infections as it have been proven to be powerful in vitro against a broad variety of viruses [3,4].
12 Intestinal Helminthiasis in School Age Children of Kashmir Valley and the Need for Intervention: A Systematic Review , Showkat Ahmad Wani and Sheikh Tanveer Salam
Kashmir valley is the most densely populated part of Jammu and Kashmir, India. The enormous population, along with the ab-sence of basic amenities, favourable climatic conditions and underdeveloped public health care system favour the transmission of intestinal helminthiasis. Present paper reviews the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections in the Kashmir Valley and need for control strategies. A survey of published literature by virtue of PUBMED was done. Also many other bibliographic databases were searched to retrieve the relevant articles. After excluding duplicate studies, 11 research papers were retained for this paper. Intestinal helminth infections like those of Ascaris, Trichuris, Enterobius and Taenia saginata in Kashmir Valley remain very high. Majority of the infected are young children between the age group of 5 and 14 years. The age group, rural or urban residence, type of water source, boiled or unboiled water, type of defecation site, level of personal hygiene and maternal education were associated with helminth infection. Since the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends chemotherapy for intestinal helminth infections among school-age children, there is no government policy for helminth control in Kashmir Valley. Present article stresses on regular school-based programs to deliver anthelmintics to all school age children so as to reduce the prevalence of helminth infections in Kashmir Valley
13 Molecular Identification of Etiological Agents of Chromoblastomycosis in Costa Rica , Daniela Jaikel-Víquez, Stefany Lozada-Alvarado and Lorena Uribe-Lorío
Chromoblastomycosis is the second most frequently reported subcutaneous mycosis in Costa Rica. It is caused by dematiaceous fungi belonging to the family Herpotrichiellaceae (Order Chaetothyriales), especially by Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Cladophialophora carrionii. However, it is important to note that Fonsecaea monophora is able to disseminate and cause cerebral phaeohyphomycosis. Thus, five clinical isolates deposited in the Fungal Collection of the School of Microbiology of the University of Costa Rica were ana-lyzed. The isolates were characterized macroscopically and microscopically after grown in potato dextrose agar. Genetic identifica-tion was performed via amplification and sequencing of the ITS (internal transcription spacer) region. The isolates were identified as F. pedrosoi (n = 3), F. monophora (n = 1) and Rhinocladiella aquaspersa (n = 1). Hence, we report for the first time that R. aquaspersa is an etiological agent of chromoblastomycosis in Costa Rica and confirm the presence of both F. pedrosoi and F. monophora in the country. Therefore, we recommend the usage of molecular techniques to identify these pathogens since there is a risk of fungal dis-semination in our patients
14 Anomalous Behavior of Adenovirus L4-33K Mutant Protein , Mohammad Feraz Ahsan
The late genes of adenovirus are transcribed from the major late transcription unit (MLTU), generating mRNA through L1 to L5. L4-33K protein is RNA splicing factor responsible for early to late switch in L1 alternative splicing. The L1-52,55K mRNA is produced during both early and late after infection, whereas L1-IIIa mRNA at late phase. L4-33K when phosphorylated by DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) has an inhibitory effect on the temporal switch in L1 alternative RNA splicing, whereas phosphorylation with protein kinase A (PKA) has an enhancer effect on L1-IIIa splicing. The C-terminal region of L4-33K is conserved and responsible for splicing, nuclear localization and other functional activities. Mutational studies replacing serine with glycine in L4-33K, referred to as S176G, S189G, S196G did not hamper above functionality, but mutation at position 192 abolished the L4-33K splicing enhancer activity and nuclear localization. Here we show the posttranslational effect of these proteins against DNA-PK and PKA; all the mu-tants showed hypophosphorylation with DNA-PK and PKA, except S192G, which unusually showed hyperphosphorylation up to 2.63 times of the wild type L4-33K against DNA-PK, justifying earlier findings. This unusual result may be due to drastic misfolding of S192G exposing other phosphorylating residues. It would be interesting to carry out structural analysis of this protein during native and phosphorylated state.
15 Culture Parameters Affect the Light Emitting Property of Organisms Isolated from Two Marine Fishes , Anuradha Pandey Dubey and Madhuri Sharon
Organisms were isolated and cultured from two marine fishes (Stolephorus indicus and Nemipterus japonicus) that were exhibiting Bioluminescence. Identification and assessment of impact of five different culture media on the growth and light emission properties were studied. Isolates from both the fishes showed microbes to be gram negative Coccobacilli, Partial gene sequencing analysis sug-gested that the microbes belonged to Vibrio spp and Photobacterium spp. Biochemical analysis of both the bacterial isolates exhibited difference in sugar (Mannitol and Lactose), LDC, Indole and Urea content; suggesting that the two isolated colonies are different bio-luminescent bacteria. Repeated subculture (to obtain pure colonies) of both the isolates resulted in gradual reduction in the intensity of luminescence of the bacteria and eventually loss of luminescence property occurred. However, luminescence was revived when they were grown in aerated condition
16 Biological Control of Weeds by Fungi: Challenges and Opportunities , Hamid Cheraghian Radi and Ali Mohammad Banaei-Moghaddam
Weed plants are one of the main constraints to agriculture and cause considerable crop yield loss besides reducing product quality and leading to health and environmental threats. In comparison to various weed management strategies, biological control-especially mycoherbicides-offer an innovative approach to address this problem. Today, the bio-control of weeds by mycoherbicide (either fungal spore suspension or their metabolites) has received significant academic attention and over the past few decades some of the high profile candidates became commercially available. Employing mycoherbicide proposes benefits including being environ-mentally friendly, cost effective, and identifying new herbicidal mechanisms. This review focuses on challenges that mycoherbicides encounter before their adoption. Besides, important factors in both selecting and improving a fungal strain as a mycoherbicide are reviewed. Additionally, using integrated weed management as complementary methods to elevate the efficacy of mycoherbicides have been considered.
17 Antibiogram of Acinetobacter spp. Isolates in a Tertiary Care Hospital: A Lead towards Antibiotic Stewardship , B Apoorva, Sneha Mohan, Tarana Sarwat and Dalip K Kakru
Acinetobacter spp. is an important nosocomial pathogen especially in intensive care settings and is resistant to commonly avail-able antimicrobial agents. Active surveillance is therefore necessary in order to determine appropriate antibiotic for the treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine the antibiogram of Acinetobacter spp. isolated in patients attending the tertiary care hospital. It is a prospective study conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Sharda Hospital.Acinetobacter from various clinical samples were included in this study during six months period from May 2019 to October 2019. The isolates were identified using conventional and automated methods (Vitek2 COMPACT, bioMérieux) and the susceptibility was done using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay. During the study period, a total of 40 Acinetobacter spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens, out of which 47.5% isolation was from ICUs. Highest isolation was observed from pus samples (22.5%) followed by blood (17.5%) and endotracheal aspirate (17.5%). 77.5% isolates were MDR (Multidrug Resistant), however they remained sus-ceptible to colistin and tetracycline. It is necessary to regularly monitor the resistance phenotypes of Acinetobacter. Enhanced sur-veillance of MDR Acinetobacter is critical for guiding the rational use of antibiotics and reducing the incidence of hospital acquired infections
18 Bacteriological Profile of Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection , Nikita Birhman, Sneha Mohan, Tarana Sarwat, Mariyah Yousuf and Dalip K Kakru
Introduction: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is one of the most common causes of hospital-acquired infections. Among UTIs acquired in the hospital, approximately 75% are associated with a urinary catheter. CAUTI is associated with major morbidity and can lead to genitourinary complications.Materials and Methods: 300 catheterized urine samples received in the bacteriological laboratory during the study period were processed as per the standard bacteriological procedures.Results: Out of 300 samples from patients showing signs and symptoms of CAUTI included in our study a total of 76 strains were isolated, the isolates were identified based on culture characteristics, Gram’s stain and biochemical reactions and were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing.Conclusion: In the present study, we found that Escherichia coli was the major organism for infection and was susceptible to Colistin followed by Meropenem, Imipenem and by other antibiotics, in that order.
19 A Complete Overview and Guidelines for nCOv-2019 (COVID-19) with Special Reference to Corporate Hospital , Avinash Teli, Azaz Ahmad, Danish Azad, Mohd Ajmal, Shaziya Sheikh and Arvind Kumar
An acute respiratory disease, caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, previously known as 2019-nCoV), the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread throughout China and received worldwide attention. On 30 January 2020, World Health Or-ganization (WHO) officially declared the COVID-19 epidemic as a public health emergency of international concern. Meanwhile, several independent research groups have identified that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to β-coronavirus, with highly identical genome to bat coronavirus, pointing to bat as the natural host. These policies included large-scale quarantine, strict controls on travel and extensive monitoring of suspected cases. However, it is unknown whether these policies have had an impact on the epidemic. We sought to show how these control measures impacted the containment of the epidemic. The novel coronavirus uses the same receptor, angio-tensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as that for SARS-CoV and mainly spreads through the respiratory tract. Importantly, increasingly evidence showed sustained human-to-human transmission, along with many exported cases across the globe. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients include fever, cough, fatigue and a small population of patients appeared gastrointestinal infection symptoms.
20 Novel Therapeutic Interventions in Treating Patients with COVID-19 Pneumonia, COVID-19 Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Severe COVID-19 Illness and Promising Vaccine Candidates , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn and Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn
Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were detected in Wuhan city, China since late December 2019. More and more cases have been identified in other areas outside Wuhan city of China and abroad, particularly in Italy, Iran and other European countries, including the United Kingdom and the United States. A total of 77,779 confirmed COVID-19-infected cases were in China, as of February 24, 2020. As of Friday morning (March 20, 2020), at least 246,275 COVID-19-infected cases have been diagnosed worldwide and 14,250 of which are in the United States.
21 COVID-19 Treatment and Post-COVID-19 Complication Syndrome: A Review , SM Rathnasiri Bandara, S Samita, SS Hettiarachchi and SMTN Senanayaka
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 caused by the SARS-Cov-2 virus belonging to the coronaviridae family to which SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV belonged. Therefore, viral immunopathology and treatment plane of COVID-19 have been explained based mainly on SARS-CoV2 as well as the known similar viral immunopathology to SARS. The major pathogenic mechanisms of COVID-19 include excesses activation of cytokines and chemokines, deficiencies in the innate immune response, direct involvement of immune cells, direct viral cytopathic effects, down-regulation of lung-protective angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), autoimmunity and genetic factors. The key factors seem that both abnormal immune responses and injury to immune cells increase in the production of inflammatory cytokines, autoantibodies and complement proteins leading to tissue damage. For these possible and obvious immunes - mediated life-threatening complications of viral infection, antiviral drugs, interferon, hydroxyl chloroquine, and TMPRSS2 inhibitor have been used in standard protocol against the COVID-19 immunopathology. It seems to have a lack of efficacy of the drugs due to the inability to stop all vulnerable steps of the immune pathology of the disease. Therefore, there is still no recognized or recommended or standard immune regulative treatment plan for COVID 19. Thus, considerations of all these backgrounds, “5S 5T Approach to battle COVID-19 approach including new corticosteroids protocol for COVID-19 and has been introduced targeting to stop or suppress life-threatening immune pathology of SARS-2 infection. It is also included the other alternative methods practiced by general community and traditional approaches. Especially the steroids protocol has been planned in the review with deeply considering avoiding the experience of unsuccessful approaches that caused many harmful effects such as high motility, viremia, increased viral load, no effect, side effect, fungal illness, hyperglycemia, and secondary infections. This review has been considered and described immunological changes in each phase of viral illness and the effective steroid protocol to manage at the pre-preliminary phase, early phase, and middle phase, severe/critical phase and post-viral infected phase (post COVID19 complication syndrome). This new protocol that is open to change and alteration is proposed
22 Short Message to All Healthcare Providers about Coronavirus Infectious Disease-2019 (COVID 19) , Syed Haseeb Raza Naqvi, Madiha Fatima and Han Naung Tun
Coronaviruses are a group of related viruses, cause respiratory tract infections in human that can be mild as common cold and can be lethal, such as SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease was first identified in No-vember 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of China's Hubei province, and has since spread globally, resulting in the ongoing 2019–20 coro-navirus pandemic
23 The Real Race between Time and Invention of Covid 19 Vaccine , Rajeev Shah and Reena Mehta.
Covid-19 pandemic shocks and locks whole world at the end of 2019 and 2020. Maximum death occurred in USA followed by Italy and Spain. Here discussion and analysis have been focused on vari-ous types of vaccines of Corona virus on basis of its spike antigen S and its corresponding human ACE2 receptor on cells. The ulti-mate target of all types of vaccines is to prevent binding of ACE2 receptor to S antigen of corona, except long acting interferons. The interferons are natural antiviral substances produced by virus in-fected mammalian cells and are of three types α, β and δ. The main sources of the latest information of Covid-19 vaccination has been internet websites and social net working sites like whatsApp and facebook etc.
24 Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Microorganisms Isolated from Unexplored Saline Regions of Kutch, Gujarat, India , Josh CM and Trivedi NS.
The present investigation reveals the diversity of bacteria, fungus and archaea along the different regions of Kutch area, Gujarat, India. The samples were collected from 3 selected site of Kutch area whose temperature was between 37 - 41°C, pH 8.5, EC 1480 μs, Salinity 9.01 and 1.85 ppm TDS. 52 bacterial, 17 extreme halophilic archaea and 2 halophilic fungus strains were isolated, among these all bacterial strains were selected for further study like enzyme productivity and anti-microbial activity because the main aim of research was to isolate organism which have multiple applications. Fifteen strains produced four or more than four enzymes which have industrial application (amylase, protease, cellulose, lipase, and chitinase) and one strain of Micrococcus showed antimicrobial activity against all test cultures. Eighteen archaea and two halophilic fungi that grew at 25% salt containing medium were also isolated.
25 Self-Cleansing and Special Healing Properties of River Ganga: Million People Depend on this Water , Indranil Chatterjee, Soumitra Sahana, Anirban Adhikary and Animitra Bhattacharjee.
Ganga is known to be a help to a tremendous measure of individuals in India and is known to be the heartbeat of the profound existence of the Hindu culture. Self-purifying and recuperating power have consistently been related with stream Ganga. In any case, of late, logical research has likewise sponsored this case
26 COVID-19 Pandemic of 2020: Prevention and Public Health Policy , Robert W Buckingham and Renata Ferretti.
The world is now facing a pandemic crisis of COVID-19. This pandemic has awakened the consciousness of many countries that have not prioritized their public health and prevention policies and practices. European countries were devastated by Covid-19, and the United States of America (U.S.A.) is presently the country with the highest number of cases and fatalities. It is the time for many countries to reassess the importance of public health and preventive strategies. This is also the time for large economies to consider a reallocation resources from military establishment to public health preventive initiatives. The study is secondary research and aims to analyze how countries have invested resources in prevention and public health
27 Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Ocimum basilicum Seed Extract and its Application in H2O2 Sensing , Fouzia, Atirah Tauseef, Ahmad Khalilullah and Imran Uddin.
Plant extract mediated nanomaterials synthesis is one of the emanating fields of nanotechnology with voluminous applications in the physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, etc. Although different chemical techniques are on the brink of development, the rising concern for environmental contamination opens the path for biological synthesis as most of the chemical routes need toxic chemicals. The current piece of the study intended to synthesize silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract from the seed of the medicinal plant, Ocimum basilicum, under ambient conditions. A fixed ratio of plant extract to metal ion was prepared, and the color change was observed which proved the formation of nanoparticles. TEM analysis revealed silver nano-particles existed in a quasi-spherical shape with an average size of 11 nm in diameter. Moreover, the H2O2 sensing capacity of biologically synthesized AgNPs has also been studied
28 RNAi-Mediated Antiviral Approach to SARS-CoV-2 , P Shaik Syed Ali, A Sheeza and J Jasmine.
In 2003, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS coronavirus (CoV) affected 26 countries with 8000 cases. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. It rapidly evolved into a pandemic disease resulting in an unprecedented health crisis. Antiviral drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and related coronaviruses are crucial to prevent any future epidemics and pandemics. RNA interference (RNAi), an RNA guided post transcriptional gene silencing mechanism, plays important role in viral defense in mammals including humans. RNAi can inhibit the virus replication and expression of viral proteins through the leverage of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Therefore, RNAi an innate viral defense mechanism distributed in human cells might be a potential antiviral approach to SARS-CoV-2
29 Cytokine Storming in COVID-19 , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn and Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn.
During viral infection, cytokines play an important role in immunopathology with the first line of defense against viral infection via rapid and well-coordinated innate immune response. In vitro studies reveal that delayed release of cytokines and chemokines occurs in respiratory epithelial cells, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) at the early stage of severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection, including COVID-19 infection. At the later stage of infection, these cells secrete low levels of the antiviral factors-interferons (IFNs) and high levels of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and chemokines (C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL-2, CCL-3 and CCL-5. SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 infects human airway epithelial cells, DCs, human peripheral blood monocyte (HPBM)-derived macrophages, and THP-1 cells (a monocyte cell line) and elevates levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines
30 Collaborative Study Brazil-Portugal: Validation of HPV Lyophilized Samples , Maria Elizabeth Menezes, Frederico Tourinho, José Abol Corrêa, Ana Paula Faria and Mario Cunha.
HPV is an important virus that is responsible for more than 99% of cancer in women. Preparation and validation of lyophilized samples to use as a control of molecular biology tests for HPV is very important. There are several techiniques to performer molecular test to detecte HPV however, it is necessary that their is a sample control whith can be used independent of methodology. Validation of lyophilized samples by different molecular techniques to have harmonized standards relies on consistent control.
31 Drug Re-Purposing - Can Anti-Allergy Drugs also be Used to Treat Cancer? , Moschou Georgia and Topham H. Caroline.
Medulloblastoma (MB) constitutes the commonest malignant childhood brain cancer, and it is the leading cause of death in infants under 1 year. Treatment approaches, such as surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, have significantly enhanced in patients’ clinical outcome with approximately more than 60% of 5-year survival. Nevertheless, the majority of cancer patients deal with long-term side effects. So, it is important to develop novel therapeutics with lower toxicity and increased efficacy. The present project was conducted to examine if the anti-allergy drugs can inhibit the cancer growth. More specifically, eight anti-allergy compounds, designed by the chemists at University of Central Lancashire (UCLAN), were evaluated for their anti-cancer activity against medulloblastoma. The effect of each testing drug was tested with the use of MTT assay after three days of incubation on medulloblastoma ONS76 cell line. From the extraction of the results of these anti-allergy compounds, it was found that only three of them (CL1-45-1, CL1-56-1, CL1-57-1) were more active, as they significantly inhibited the cancer growth. But, the CL1-42-1 compound displayed the greatest anti-cancer activity against the medulloblastoma ONS76 cells with IC50 = >10 μΜ (IC50 = 0 μΜ). This leads to the conclusion for further investigation of the anti-allergy compounds in order to consider them as potential anti-cancer agents
32 Molecular Screening and Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2: Recent Advances and Future Prospective , Avinash Kumar, Abhishek Kumar Verma and Mayadhar Barik.
Background: COVID-19 is a new form of Coronavirus which is resembling the same as SARS-CoV-2. This virus leads to cause severe respiratory diseases among the people. Coronavirus is declared as the pandemic by the WHO on March 11, 2020. Transmission of the disease is mainly due to the person to person contact by any means Materials and Methods: We detect the disease primary screening is necessary for a speedy recovery. PCR and other nucleic acid amplification are mainly used to diagnose the Covid-19. For the detection of the SARS, its gene is targeted in the amplification. The genes which are targeted are E, N, S, RdRp and ORf. Mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 genome is also detected by the various nucleic acid detection tests. We improve the detection of this pandemic, the only thing is to increase the involvement of Serological testing and molecular methods Results: The majority of 85-95% factor becomes useful to overcome this disease is early detection rate of the disease SARS-CoV-2.Molecular and serological findings should need to work simultaneously for the improvement in the diagnosis and the treatment approximately 85% laboratory. Conclusion: The only factor which becomes useful to overcome this disease is early detection of the disease.Molecular and serologicalstudyshould need to work simultaneously for the improvement in the diagnosis and the treatment. The need of the hour is to maintain and introduced laboratory networking and its application
33 The Current Overview of COVID-19 Pandemic in India , Arindam Chakraborty, Payel Mukherjee and Dr Manas Chakraborty.
COVID-19 has been declared as a "Global Pandemic" by WHO (World Health organization). It has affected the whole world as well as India. It has been spread almost every parts of the country, crossed more than 1 lac 18 thousands positive cases, more than 3500 patients were deceased and 48500+ patients recovered till May 22, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) virus mainly responsible for these COVID-19 or Novel corona virus disease. It has affected the Respiratory system and made severe life threat. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) and all the States government have provided proper guidelines to the citizens about how to fight against the Corona virus like maintain social distancing, Proper lockdown, Proper awareness like do’s and don’ts for people
34 A Covid-19 Patient With Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura , Indranil Chatterjee, Rakhi Bakuli.
A 65-year-elderly person with hypertension, immune system hypothyroidism, and known Covid-19 presentation introduced to the crisis division with a 4-day history of weakness, fever, dry hack and stomach uneasiness. She was afebrile and had a respiratory pace of 28 breaths for every moment and an oxygen immersion of 89% while she was breathing encompassing air; breath sounds were decreased respectively with bibasilar rales. The stomach as-sessment was ordinary. Research center tests demonstrated an or-dinary white-cell check, hemoglobin level (14.2g per deciliter) and platelet tally (183,000 for each cubic millimeter). The C-receptive protein level was raised at 55 mg for each liter, and liver-work tests indicated cholestasis. An oropharyngeal swab for Covid-19 test-ing was certain. Chest processed tomography (CT) demonstrated ground-glass opacities in the lower zones. The patient was con-ceded and started to get treatment with intravenous amoxicillin clavulanic corrosive, low-atomic weight heparin, and oxygen.
35 Anorectal Emergencies: Perianal Abscess , Aybala Yildiz, Alp Yildiz, Veysel Baris Turhan, Engin Kucukdiler and Erkan Karacan.
Anorectal emergencies refer to anorectal disorders presenting with some alarming symptoms such as acute anal pain and bleed-ing which might require an immediate management. Emergencies such as acutely thrombosed external hemorrhoid, thrombosed or strangulated internal hemorrhoid, bleeding hemorrhoid, bleeding anorectal varices, anal fissure, irreducible or strangulated rectal prolapse, anorectal abscess, perineal necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier gangrene), retained anorectal foreign bodies and obstructing rec-tal cancer. In this study we present our ambulatory management of perianal abscess. Fifty-two consecutive cases included this study. The patients admitted to outpatient clinic with anal pain, lump and/or purulent leak. All patients has diagnosed perianal abscess with physical examination. Patients has transferred the ambulatory surgery department for drainage. All abscesses drained at the bedside. Postoperative 1 patient admitted emergency service with anal pain which controlled NSAID injection. 1 patient presented with recurrent anal abscess on 8th postoperative day. No intra/postoperative bleeding/need for secondary powder application or postoperative anal incontinence detected. The main management of perianal abscess is surgical drainage. We present our series of perianal abscess treated with abscess drainage as day-care surgery with review of literature
36 Microbiological Quality and Safety Assessment of Sugar Cane Juice and Ice Sold by Vendors in Faisalabad City, Pakistan , Yasir Abbas Shah, Muhammad Afzaal, Masood Ahmad and Javeria Mustafa.
The risk of illness associated with untreated freshly squeezed juices sold by street vendors is increasing gradually. Street vended juices are widely consumed by millions of people in developing countries.Epidemiological data indicated that unpasteurized sugar cane juices indisputably resulted in increased numbers of reported out-breaks. In Faisalabad city there is a constant great demand for fresh fruit juice. To determine the microbiological quality, a total of sixty five samples of sugar cane juice and thirty samples of ice sold by street vendors on four different popular roads of Faisalabad city were collected and analysed by standard methods for the detection of coliform, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli. All the col-lected samples of sugar cane juice and ice were hygienically poor as shown through high bacterial load ranging from 2 × 103 - 3 × 107 CFU/mL and 2 × 103 - 3 × 105 CFU/mL respectively. The Consequence of this study indicated the prevalence of different pathogenic microorganisms (Total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli) in many tested samples. Results demonstrated the low quality, safety of street vended sugar cane juices and ice added in it for cooling purpose. Appropriate actions must be taken immediately by respec-tive authorities to improve quality and safety of juices to prevent any type of outbreak
37 Terbinafine Preferred Antifungal with a Focus on Dermatophytes (A Review) , Mayank Panday, Divya Pandey, Prashant Upadhyay and Sukirti Upadhyay.
17 years ago, Terbinafine was hailed in the global drug market to use as antifungal. In the treatment of superficial dermatophytosis terbinafine is become the first choice of drug, because of its effective mode of action, pharmacologic action and microbiologic profiles. Appropriate use of terbinafine as a topical and systemic drug needs to be used with appropriate guidelines. Terbinafine is primarily indicated and also discussed a contraindication for the treatment of non-dermatophyte infections. Terbinafine act by inhibiting the enzyme squalene epoxidase which is an important component of fungal cell membrane resulting in disintegration of fungal cell was allowing terbinafine to exert its fungicidal action. As per the recent advancement significant clinical relevance seen in activity of terbinafine when used in combination of other antifungal leads to decrease in resistance. This article reviews mode of action, antimycotic spectrum and disposition profile of terbinafine. we have also done a comparative analysis of terbinafine over other antifungals (griseofulvin, itraconazole, fluconazole) in the management of dermatophytes infection
38 Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19): A Review of the Literature , Shirin Tarafder.
The ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Fourteen mutations have been identified in Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 of which mutation D614G is of urgent concern; that may have originated either in China or Europe, and which is now the dominant pandemic form in many countries. Although most patients have mild symptoms and good prognosis after infection but can result in severe and even fatal respiratory diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), can die of multiple organ failure. It still remains unclear regarding the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans. Innate immune response is the early defense against viral infections, and when it is dysregulated, results in an exaggerated inflammation, may cause death. The information on immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is not well documented. The cytokine storm may be responsible for severity of the disease. There is a growing understanding of SARS-CoV-2 in the virology, immunological changes, potential pathogenesis, disease progression and clinical management strategies. This review has summarized the current knowledge on the updated approaches regarding COVID-19 based on the emerging basic and clinical data
39 Immunopathology of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2: A brief review , Bramhadev Pattnaik, Pinaki Panigrahi and Mahendra P Yadav.
The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 responsible for Coronavirus infectious disease of 2019 (COVID-19) in human, now a Global pandemic affecting 212 countries in all the five Continents, damages the cells that have ACE2 receptor expression on their surface. Hoffman., et al. (2020) observed that in addition to ACE2 receptor required for cellular attachment of the virion, cellular entry mechanism of the virus requires a cellular serine protease, TMPRSS2 and because alveolar type 2 cells express higher levels of both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 receptors, these cells might be the primary entry point for the virus in the lung. Intestine and kidney also have high expression of ACE2. The virus along with the ACE2 receptor enters the cells by endocytosis that results in reduction of ACE2 on cells, and as a consequence serum level of angiotensin II increases. Angiotensin II acts both as a vasoconstrictor and pro-inflammatory cytokine. Exposure to the virus does not necessarily cause infection, and not all people infected develop ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) or succumb to the disease. Though people of all age group and sex are susceptible, the disease could be more fatal in elderly persons > 60 years of age. Extensive lung damage due to elicitation of Cytokine Storm (cytokine release syndrome; CRS) has been described by Hirano and Murakami (2020) and Shi., et al (2020). Role of specific HLA loci and alleles (class I or II) in developing protective immunity to this virus infection remains to be elucidated. It has been reported by Iwasaki and Yang (2020) that antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 at low concentrations as well as low affinity antibodies in the body can result in antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) by utilizing Fc receptors on immune cells including macrophages, monocytes and B lymphocytes. ADE has detrimental effect in some patients with virus specific antibodies. High WBC count with associated lymphocytopenia is common in the COVID-19 patients. Ganji., et al. (2020) have reported significant reduction in the numbers of circulating lymphocytes and platelets, CD4+: CD8+ ratio of 2:1, and higher expression of CD8+ and hyperactivation of CTLs and no significant change in the expression level of CD4+ compared to healthy individuals. Anti-viral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection was due to over expression of CD8 and hyper activation of CTLs. Pathophysiology and pathology of the disease has been elaborated by Yuki., et al. (2020) and Sahu., et al (2020). The present review compiles the aspects of pathogenesis and involvement of the host immune system in aggravating the disease through the process of immune response
40 Experimental Evidence for Neural Progenitor Cells in Adult Substantia Nigra , Opeyemi Oluwasanmi Adeloye, Oyeneyin Babatunde David, Samuel Olawuwo and Roseline Kehinde Adeloye.
The substantia (“black substance” in Latin) is a long nucleus located in the midbrain but considered functionally a part of the basal ganglia because of its reciprocal connections with other brainstem nucleic. Degeneration of the pars compacta of the substantia nigra result in reduction of the availability of the neurotransmitter dopamine. This lack of dopaminergic innervation to the stratum results in disorders associated with hypokinesia or reduced motor movement. However, Parkinson disease is a result of reduced functioning substantia nigra. A few studies have shown that progenitor cells present in different areas of the adult central nervous system (CNS) but specificity (i.e. SNc) whether such cells reside in the adult SNc and whether they have the potential to replace degenerating neurons effects is unknown. The purpose was to investigate a population of actively dividing progenitor cells in the adult SN, after removal from the SN, these progenitor cells immediately have the potential to differentiate into neurons. Transplantation of freshly isolated SN progenitor cells into the adult hippocampus showed that these cells also have a neuronal potential under in vivo conditions. These results suggest that progenitor cells reside in the adult SN and can give rise to new neurons when exposed to appropriate environmental signals
41 Experimental Studies on Production of Biodiesel from Oryza sativa (Rice) Bran Oil , Ahmad Tabish.
Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving industry to develop viable alternative fuels from renewable resources that are environmentally more acceptable. Vegetable oil is a potential alternative fuel. The most detrimental properties of vegetable oils are its high viscosity and low volatility, and these cause several problems during their long duration usage in compression ignition (CI) engines. The most commonly used method to make vegetable oil suitable for use in CI engines is to convert it into biodiesel, i.e. vegetable oil esters using process of transesterification.Rice bran oil is an underutilized non-edible vegetable oil, which is available in large quantities in rice cultivating countries, and very little research has been done to utilize this oil as a replacement for mineral Diesel. In the present work, the transesterification process for production of rice bran oil methyl ester has been investigated. The optimum conditions for transesterification of rice bran oil with methanol and KOH as catalyst were found to be 60°C reaction temperature, 2h reaction time, 6:1 molar ratio of rice bran oil to methanol and 2% catalyst (w/w). The various properties such as viscosity, density, flash point, fire point etc. are compared with ASTM and DIN standard. The TLC method use for the confirmation of biodiesel and to calculate the yield. Results showed that biodiesel obtained under the optimum conditions has comparable properties to substitute mineral Diesel, hence, rice bran oil methyl ester biodiesel could be recommended as a mineral Diesel fuel substitute for compression ignition (CI) engines in transportation as well as in the agriculture sector
42 Mathematical Modeling to Estimate the Reproductive Number and the Outbreak Size of COVID-19: The case of India and the World , Durgesh Nandini Sinha.
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic with more than 218,000 deaths in 211 different countries around the world. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for this deadliest disease. This paper describes a mathematical model for India, a country with the second highest population in the world with an extremely high population density of about 464 people per km2. This disease has multiphasic actions and reaction mode and our model SEIAQIm is based on six compartmental groups in the form of susceptible, exposed, infectious, asymptomatic, quarantine, and recovered immune factions. Latin Hypercube Sampling Partial Rank Correlation Coefficient method was used for the data analysis and model fitting. According to our model, India would reach its basic reproduction number R0 = 0.97 on May 14, 2020 with a total number of 73,800 estimated cases. Further, this study also equates the world's situation using the same model system and predicts by May 7, 2020 with a total number of 3,772,000 estimated confirmed cases. Moreover, the current mathematical model highlights the importance of social distancing as an effective method of containing spread of COVID-19
43 Emphasizing the Efficiency of a Cellulolytic Preparation on the Hydrolyzed Wood Wastes , Ana Despina Ionescu, Angela Căşărică, Roxana - Mădălina Stoica and Nicoleta Ene.
According to the literature data, the cellulose, the most abundant organic molecule on Earth, is found mainly as a structural component of plants and algal cell walls, it is also produced by some animals such as tunicates, and it can be produced also by several bacteria, by a natural pathway or by biotechnology. Due to this situation, there are many studies focused on the use of this kind of renewable source and having as their issues the preparation of different valuable products, such as sugars, ethanol. different chemicals, the whole yeasts biomass valorization with agricultural applications or for biofuels development.Our issue of this present study was to verify if we can avoid the microbial additional activity during the process, mostly while the conversion starts from some materials already pretreated, such as the paper and cellulose industry’s wastes, by using them as substrate in an optimized culture media formula, for the further yeasts strains development
44 Mathematical Model and Simulations of COVID-19 2020 Outbreak in New York: Predictions and Implications for Control Measures , Durgesh Nandini Sinha and Peiwen Tan.
The outbreak of the novel coronavirus has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality in the affected 210 countries with about 2.4 million people infected and over 163 thousand deaths. The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is effective at binding to human cells, but this SARS-CoV-2 backbone differed substantially from those of already known coronaviruses and mostly resembled related viruses found in bats and pangolins. To help predict the possible dynamics of COVID-19 as well as ways to contain it, this paper develops a mathematical model for the disease, which includes two different infectious routes. The model’s predictions are fitted to data from the outbreaks in New York State from March 1 2020 first report to April 19 2020. However, the containment time and the severity of the outbreaks depend crucially on the contact coefficients and the isolation rate constant. When randomness is added to the model coefficients, the simulations show that the model is sensitive to the scaled contact rate among people and to the isolation rate. The model is analyzed using stability theory for ordinary differential equations and indicates that when using only isolation for control and advising self recovery,the endemic steady state is locally stable and attractive. After the April 14 2020 highest peak of COVID-19 new infections by the SARS-CoV-2 virus will slow down from the beginning of May at New York State if people will keep the isolation. Numerical simulations with parameters estimated from New York State illustrate the analytical results and the model behavior, which may have important implications for the disease containment in other cities. Indeed, the model highlights the importance of isolation of infected individuals and advising self recovery may be used to assess other control measures. The model is general and may be used to analyze outbreaks in other states of the United States and other countries.
45 Recent Approaches against SARS-COV-2: The Ongoing Outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) , Manas Chakraborty, Indranil Chatterjee, Suman Kumar Nath, Nilayan Guha, Raksha Ray, and Roushan Bhaskar.
Novel extreme intense respiratory condition coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lies behind the continuous episode of coronavirus mala-dy 2019 (COVID-19). There is a developing comprehension of SARS-CoV-2 in virology, the study of disease transmission, and clinical administration systems. Be that as it may, no enemy of SARS-CoV-2 medication or antibody has been authoritatively affirmed because of the nonattendance of satisfactory proof. Researchers are dashing to build up a treatment for COVID-19. Late investigations have uncovered numerous alluring remedial choices, regardless of whether some of them stay to be additionally affirmed in thorough preclinical models and clinical preliminaries. In this minireview, we mean to sum up the refreshed potential methodologies against SARS-CoV-2. We stress that further endeavors are justified to build up the most secure and best methodology.
46 The Role of 3D Printing and Computer Aided Design in Medicine at Healthcare Systems during Emergence of COVID-19 , Manas Chakraborty, Indranil Chatterjee, Toumica Ghosh, Sanchari Chatterjee, Suman Kumar Nath, Rajeswar Das, Animitra Bhattacharjee and Rabi Dayal Singh.
The ongoing effect of COVID-19 in Italy has caused local deficiencies of key hardware, including covers and hoods for non-obtru-sive ventilation in CPAP/PEEP respiratory help. The reason for this review is to feature late activities and coordinated efforts per-formed by organizations, emergency clinics, and analysts in using 3D printing during the COVID-19 pandemic and to help nearby 3D printing endeavors that can be lifesaving. The 3D printing network can pull together its clinical consideration universally, profiting by unified enormous scope fabricating offices just as privately circulated assembling of confirmed and tried CAD records. Moreover, there are different clinical, designing and different social orders and gatherings that can arrange to chip away at normal needs, huge numbers of which are delineated in this audit. While models examined here are basically opensource necessities accessible at the hour of composing, the CAD record assets alluded to in this survey are proposed for a conversation of an advancing assortment of prepared to-print models and connections to the significant assets to help in supporting pressing clinical reaction. A model assort-ment can be found at the NIH 3D Print Exchange. We should recognize that at the hour of composing, the clinical viability of a large number of the gadgets made by the CAD records depicted in this audit has not been tried and a considerable lot of these gadgets have not been endorsed for bleeding edge clinical use by significant administrative bodies. The creators of this review can’t ensure clinical viability of the introduced gadgets and would ask thought of these assets at the clients’ tact and just where no restoratively cleared options are accessible
47 A Simulation Study on the Effects of Media Composition on the Growth Rate of Escherichia coli MG1655 Using iAF1260 Model , Kar Chi Cheong, Raphael YH Hon, Clara J Sander, Irwin ZL Ang, Jun Hang Foong, and Maurice HT Ling.
Media compositions are important determinants of growth rate and genome-scale models (GSMs) had been used for optimizing media for metabolite production and growth. Recently, iAF1260, a GSM based on Escherichia coli MG1655, was used to study the effects varying glucose concentration in media on growth rate and metabolic fluxes. In this study, the effects of other media components in the presence of varying glucose concentrations on the predicted growth rate of E. coli MG1655 were examined. Our results show that 10 media components (ammonium, calcium, chloride, copper, glucose, manganese, magnesium, molybdate, phosphate, and potassium) demonstrate substantial impact on the predicted growth rate of E. coli MG1655. Of which, 4 components (glucose, ammonium, magnesium, and phosphate) have the most impact. However, our results also demonstrate the limitations of iAF1260 as media components that had been shown to affect E. coli growth rate were not reflected by the model.
48 Low Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Infection in Gujarat and Maharashtra States of Western India , Sulabhsinh Solanki, Nikhil Patel, Deepak Amarapurkar, Anjali Amrapurkar, Sanjay Patel, Chetan Lakhani, Payal Patel, Ayusi Patel, Parthvi Dani, Jinal Ka Patel, Lisma Patel, Hetal Patel, Ankita Thakkar and Nitiraj Shete.
Prevalence of hepatitis B viral infection (HBV) in India is varying from 3 to 12%, which falls in to intermediate prevalence zone. Prevalence of hepatitis C viral infection (HCV) in India varies from 0.3 to 4% among blood donor population. Previous data from western India suggests HBV prevalence of 1.6 - 5.9% and HCV prevalence of 0.2 - 15.9%. Most of these data are almost 10 years old and based on selected population. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to find out recent prevalence of HBV and HCV from multiple sources. Data on prevalence of HBV and HCV was collected prospectively from multiple sources that include general population, blood donor population, hospital attending population, and liver clinic population. HBV prevalence was as follows: gen-eral population data: 166/1758 (0.94%); blood donor data: 2039/172316 (1.18%) hospital attending population: 133/13177 (1%); liver clinic data: 2637/12251 (21.5%). HCV prevalence was as follows: general population: 1/2388 (0.040%); blood donor data: 666/171306 (0.38%); hospital attending population: 12/2597 (0.46%) liver clinic data: 916/12251 (7.4%). In Western India, there is very low prevalence of HBV and HCV; making it a low prevalence area.
49 Enzyme Instability between Problem and Solution , Mona Abdeltawab Esawy and Bassem Mahmoud Salama.
One of the main problems obstructed to the use of enzymes in industrial biotechnology is their improper stability under process-ing conditions. In the last decades, a lot of research has focused on the improvement of enzymes stability in the conditions in which they were to be used, and especially on thermal stability improvement. Long time ago different methods were suggested to enhance the enzyme stability. This review trying to explain the enzyme structure and the factors affecting its stability. also, tried to highlight and summarized most of these methods such as chemical modification, immobilization, and addition of various compounds. Also, give an overview of the recent progress in these methods.
50 Novel Corona Virus COVID-19: An Overview , Rohini Agrawal, Prashant Amale and Shilpa A Deshpande.
Virus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19), was proclaimed as a pandemic emergency by World Health Organisation (WHO) in March 2020. The main causative factor behind the pneumonic viral infection is Severe Acute Respiratoty Syndrome Coronavirus - 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which holds the 75 - 80% nucleotide sequence similarity with SARS-CoV. Infected and asymptomatic individual are the primary source of human to human transmission due to it become a pandemic, the women with third trimester is also susceptible to this respiratory and pneumonic infection. The time period for the infection is 14 days and the average duration is of 20 days. The infection is clinically manifested mainly by fever, shortness of breath, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) etc. Various diagnostic approaches such as Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT) by using RT-PCR, serological testing etc had been used among which RT-PCR found to be suc-cessful in the detection of strain of SARS-CoV-2. Present review focus on the genomic structure of SARS-CoV-2, mechanism, transmis-sion, entry into the host cell, diagnosis, and prevention of the Covid-19. This may be helpful for the development of therapeutic agents used for prophylaxis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2
51 The Art of Polythene Degrading Bacteria: The Bio-Deteriorating Action of Microbial Communities , Manas Chakraborty, Indranil Chatterjee, Sayak Samanta and Arindam Chakraborty.
Plastic is a significant reason for Environmental Pollution. Major earth surfaces, sea waters are getting polluted day by day with accumulation of plastic as waste material from different sources which is a serious concern for human beings and different marine animals living in this world. A few stages happen in the plastic biodegradation process and could be distinguished by explicit phras-ing. Bio-weakening characterizes the activity of microbial networks and other decomposer life forms answerable for the physical and synthetic decay that brought about a shallow debasement that changes the mechanical, physical and substance properties of the plas-tic. Bio-discontinuity alludes to the reactant activities that separate polymeric plastics into oligomers, dimers or monomers by ecto-compounds or free-radicals discharged by microorganisms. Osmosis portrays to the incorporation of particles moved in the cytoplasm in the microbial digestion. Mineralisation alludes to the total corruption of atoms that brought about the discharge of totally oxidized metabolites (CO2, N2, CH4, H2O). The microbial species discovered related with the debasing materials were recognized as two Gram positive and five Gram negative microscopic organisms. The microbial species related with the polythene materials were recognized as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus amylolyticus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas species etc. of which Bacillus amylolyticus causes 30% degradation and Bacillus subtilis causes 20% average degradation in a month. In this review article different isolation and identification processes followed so far for these important categories of microbes have been discussed for general awareness of research in this field
52 Meningeal Tuberculosis Presented As A Myasthenia Gravis Picture , Raziel Castillo-Guevara, Adriana Martínez-Mayorga and Ildefonso Rodriguez-Leyva.
Objective: To share an uncommon clinical case presentation of a young adult who shows a clinical picture of myasthenia gravis and had neuroinfection problem. Presentation of the Case: A 20-year-old woman with progressive and fluctuant ptosis and diplopia was evaluated through clinical and extension studies (including a repetitive neurostimulation test), but the outcome and, finally, the CSF study help us to make the diagnosis of tuberculosis from the CNS .Results: The high opening pressure, with the xanthochromic aspect and the hypoglycorrhachia with pleocytosis with mononuclear cell elevation and Tb-positive PCR, make us the guidelines for the diagnosis and final treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging shows a pinealoma and a lightly bright of the arachnoid structures. Conclusion: The multiple forms of presentation of this endemic disease push us to consider this unfortunate problem in patients with cranial nerve affection due to arachnoiditis secondary to CNS tuberculosis.
53 Immunological Situation and Interferences in the Acquisition and Production of Vaccines in Angola-Africa , Abiude Paulino
The lack of a contingency plan and a specific vaccine immuniza-tion model in Africa, the lack of hospital centers at municipal and commune level, especially in Angola, which goes according to the human, environmental and social reality of the local communities, has been a key factor in the process of stability, expansion and pub-lic health security in many African regions, above all in Angola
54 An Overview of the Drug Susceptibility Testing for Tuberculosis , Vikas Jha, BS Ajit Kumar, Sampurna Panigrahi, Gayatri Nair and Nikitha Bangera.
There in an increase in demand for reliable, inexpensive and rapid drug susceptibility assay because of expanding anti-tuberculosis drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis necessitating the need for appropriate treatment. One of the major challenges being faced is the lack of resources and the limiting of reliable drug susceptibility test meeting acceptable levels only for isoniazid and rifampicin. In this article, an overview of different drug susceptibility testing and assays is detailed and the advantages and disadvantages highlighted. It discusses the perspective on conventional methods which have paved the way for modern DSTs along with the advancements made in the conventional methods.
55 Reality of COVID-19 Reinfection , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn and Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn
Generally, the immunity development that responds to a pathogenic microorganism occurs around 1 - 2 weeks with a non-specific innate response followed by body producing antibodies (humoral responses), immunoglobulins in combination with pro-duction of T-cells or cellular immunity. The virus in the body will be eliminated by this combined adaptive response. The definitive viral elimination by their protective role from viral reinfection is yet unidentified. Around eighty known distinct genotypical vari-ants of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) have been identified. Several pre-vious studies demonstrated that SARs-CoV-2 (COVID-19) can per-sistently present in the feces of the patients, whereas no oral-fecal transmission markers were identified. A previous study in Beijing, China revealed that the virus can persist in the sputum for 39 days after becoming pharyngeal-swab negative. IgM-negative, IgG-positive antibody response and non-detectable viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) after discharging and consequent positive-SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)-RNA test, remained negative IgM, and positive IgG an-tibody tests was demonstrated in three readmitted asymptomatic-COVID-19 patients in Tongji Hospital, China. Due to the highest titers of SARS-CoV-2 RNA reaching within 7 - 10 days of clinical symptom onset and declining thereafter, the upper respiratory tract (posterior nasopharyngeal tonsil region) swabs should be performed.
56 Changing Patterns of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Tertiary Care Hospital , Ambreen Shafaat Khan, Tarana Sarwat, Sneha Mohan, Mariyah Yousuf and Dalip Kakru
Background:Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with multi drug resistance. In hospitals and community mortality and morbidity rate increases due to MRSA. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) results in serious complica-tions. Methicillin sensitive strains are less problematic than MRSA. Aim:To study the changing trends in resistance patterns of MRSA. Materials and Methods:Fifty eight clinical isolates of MRSA which were obtained in 2017 - 2020 were identified by using Cefoxitin disc according to CLSI guidelines. Results: MRSA isolates showed high resistance to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin in comparison with other drugs. Sensitivity to Vancomy-cin and Linezolid was 100%. Recently resistance among MRSA has increased for most antibiotics. Conclusion:As the rate of drug resistance in MRSA is increasing, resistance should be evaluated after a period of time and antibiotic therapy should be guided accordingly. Keywords:Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Multi Drug Resistance; Cefoxitin
57 Pesticide Residue in Mango Orchards and Health Risk , Tari VSS, Patil PY and Karthik Kannan
The Mango (Mangifera indica) crop is commercially grown in almost all nine Taluka of Ratnagiri district. This study aims to col-lect baseline data regarding pesticide residue. Mango leaf samples and soil samples of mango orchard collected across Ratnagiri district to understand either the study area is under impact of pesticide pollution or not. The soil and plant materials (mango leaf ) were collected from 20 different randomly selected Mango orchards. These samples were analyzed by Gas Chromatography coupled to High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (GC-HRMS) qualitative analysis for determination of pesticide residue in the mango field at the Ratnagiri district, Maharashtra, India. The extraction of soil samples is carried out by Solid-liquid partition method followed by concentration using Kuderna-Danish concentrator apparatus. Extraction of plant material carried out by Soxhlet method. Electron impact ionization (EI with 70 eV ionization energy) mode is used during analysis. Present study reveals appearance of some pesticide residues in the field. Total 6 chemical pesticides residues viz. Carbendazim [Methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate], Cypermethrin [(Cyano - (3 - Phenoxyphenyl) methyl – 2) 3 - (2 – 2 - dichloroethyneyl) – 2, 2 dimethylcyclopropane – 1 – carboxylate], Hexaconezole (2 - (2, 4 - Dichlorophenyl) – 1 - (1H - 1, 2, 4 – triazol – 1 - yl) Hexan - 2 - ol), Imidacloprid (N - (1 - [(6 – chloro – 3 - pyridyl) methyl)] - 4, 5 - dihydroimidazol – 2 - yl) nitramide), Monocrotophos [Dimethyl (E) 1 – methyl - 2 - (methyl carbamoyl)and phorate [0, 0 – Diethyl – S - [(ethylsulphanyl) methyl] phosphorodithioate] were found from 5 different groups such as Organophosphate, Pyrethroid, Neo-nicotinoids, Triazole and Benzimidazole. This study is significantly showing that the study area (Ratnagiri district) is under impact of pesticide pollution. There is well felt need of organic farming of mango to reduce health risk
58 Bioactivity of Endophytes from the Brazilian Tropical Savannah , Andréa Cristina Bogas, Flavia Luana Torres, Cristina Paiva de Sousa and Paulo Teixeira Lacava
The Brazilian tropical savannah is a mosaic biome, the second largest in the Brazilian territory and the most biodiverse tropical savannah in the world. Endophytes and host plants have asymbiotic relationship, in which both are beneficial. The host plant pro-vides protection to the endophytes, which, in turn, increase the fitness of the plant by inducing resistance to pathogens due to niche competition and/or synthesizing antibiotics, lytic enzymes and siderophores. Although initial studies on endophytes were directed to those living in symbiosis with temperate plants, in recent years, many reports describing the isolation of endophytic bacteria and fungi from tropical plants have been published. Secondary metabolites produced by endophytes are a promising source of bioactivity. The biochemical versatility and diversity of these microorganisms suggest that there are many unknown active compounds. Another important goal is the agronomic potential of endophytic fungi from tropical savannah. Bioprospecting studies have reported the potential of endophytes against a large number of phytopathogens responsible for large losses in economically important tropical crops. Thus far, the main method for controlling plant diseases is the application of chemicals. Nevertheless, chemicals cause toxic effects to humans, animals and the environment. Therefore, endophytic microorganisms have been considered an alternative for the control of phytopathogens and consequent augmented crop production. The lack of studies related to endophytes isolated from tropical environments enhances their importance. This review focuses on the potential activities produced by endophytes isolated from medicinal plants and their industrial, pharmaceutical and agronomic applications
59 Remdesivir and Hydroxychloroquine: An Important First Step of Searching for Evidence to Prevent COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) , Indranil Chatterjee, Toumica Ghosh, Sanchari Chatterjee, Suman Kumar Nath, Rakhi Bakuli and Soumitra Sahana
Extreme intense respiratory disorder coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the infection that causes coronavirus illness 2019 (Co-vid-19), has created an overall pandemic. The interference of its spread relies upon a blend of pharmacologic and nonpharmaco-logic intercessions. Beigel., et al. have given in the Journal the prin-cipal report of a powerful treatment for Covid-19, coming about because of a thoroughly structured and led clinical trial
60 Traffic Light Reporter for Genome Engineering , Kawalpreet K Aneja
Gene editing depends upon the cell’s endogenous DNA repair pathways. Upon DNA double-strand break, two known repair path-ways are enacted: nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and ho-mologous recombination (HDR), among others. The HDR pathway works only in the presence of an exogenous homologous template. Is it possible to determine which pathway is activated in a cell af-ter gene disruption (GD)? Is it NHEJ or HDR? Certo., et al. 2011 [1] published an article on the Traffic Light Reporter (TLR) that can distinguish between NHEJ and HR events. Traffic light reporter system is designed such that cells generate flow-cytometric read-out of HDR-mediated gene targeting or mutagenic NHEJ-mediated gene disruption occurring at an individual DNA breakpoint, which is extremely exciting
61 Diversity of Begomoviruses Infecting Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] in Togo , Fidèle Tiendrébéogo, Ayékitan Akakpo, Ezechiel B Tibiri, Monique Soro, Cheikna Zongo, Aly Savadogo, James Bouma Neya, Kossikouma Djodji Adjata and Nicolas Barro
Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] is an important crop which is widely grown in Africa. It is a major source of fiber and vitamins for diet and incomes for several women farmers. The crop is negatively impacted by okra leaf curl disease (OLCD) which is an endemic disease in Africa and is caused by a complex of begomoviruses. To determine the identity and diversity of the virus species responsible for OLCD in Togo, Okra fields were assessed and 118 okra leaves were sampled and analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers following sequencing.During fields’ surveys, OLCD prevalence has been estimated at 64% in Dry Savannah zone, 60% in Forest zone, 53% in Littoral zone and 50% in Humid Savannah zone. Altogether, the average prevalence of the disease in Togo is about 57%. Using, PCR to diagnose the presence of begomoviruses in the samples collected, ~56% were positive. Among the begomoviruses positive samples, ~38% were found associated with betasatellite molecules. The Coat Protein gene sequencing has revealed the presence of Cotton leaf curl Gezira virus (CLCuGeV) and Okra yellow crinkle virus (OYCrV) in Togo.This study highlights the complexity of begomoviruses associated to OLCD in Togo
62 A Crushing Load of COVID-19 at Maharashtra: Indian Epicenter of the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic , Indranil Chatterjee, Toumica Ghosh, Sanchari Chatterjee, Suman Kumar Nath, Rakhi Bakuli and Soumitra Sahana
Medical clinics are overpowered with the devastating heap of COVID-19 cases and are experiencing deficiencies of individual defensive gear (Personal Protective Equipment) for care suppli-ers. More than 67,000 Indians have affected with COVID-19 till date, out of which 20,917 have been recovered with more than 2,206 of them are died. 22,171 cases overview from Maharashtra state alone out of which 832 have lost their life and remaining are under treatment and sent for quarantine (Figure 1). Since late-April, either by choice or in response to shelter-in-place orders, most Indians have been staying home and limiting non-essential travel and industrial and business activity has slowed to a crawl. In a thick urban territory, most occupants have no entrance to private open-air space and depend on open parks for work out, the emotional well-being help that originates from an association with nature and outside air. Scrupulous city occupants presently contemplate how to keep up safe social separation while impart-ing restricted outside space to other people. Official proposals by the WHO have combined on 6 ft of separation as the standard of thumb [1] for maintaining a strategic distance from the trading of possibly infective respiratory beads and vaporizers, however these suggestions were conceived based on perceptions made during the 1930s for medical clinic environments
63 Influenza A Virus: Cause of Multispecies Disease and Zoonoses , Sharanagouda Patil, Bramhadev Pattnaik, Pinaki Panigrahi and Mahendra P Yadav
Influenza A viruses (IAV) in the family Orthomyxoviridae, including all avian influenza viruses (AIVs), are enveloped, pleomorphic, and possess eight separate RNA genomic segments ranging in size between 890 and 2341 nucleotides. As observed by, the persistent and sporadic outbreaks of various Influenza A viruses in poultry and humans, respectively, warns the likelihood of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) becoming the next influenza pandemic strain. Further, among the vast pool of AIVs in nature, the HPAI A/H5N1 virus is believed to represent the greatest threat for the next flu pandemic. Therefore, the pandemic potential of subtypes of AIVs should not be overlooked and the domestic and aquatic wild bird populations should be under surveillance to monitor interspecies transmis-sion. Such monitoring would help in understanding the ecology of human influenza and controlling avian zoonoses. The HA and NA glycoproteins on the virus surface encoded by separate RNA segments are antigenically diverse, and divide the IAVs into 18 H and 11 N antigenic subtypes, respectively. Aquatic birds like wild water fowl and ducks are natural host for AIV subtypes of H-1 to H-16 and N-1 to N-9. Two new subtypes each of HA and NA (H17N10, H18N11) have been recently identified in bats. Isolation of new AIV subtypes from bats has added another angle, in addition to the role of wild aquatic birds, to the ecology and emergence of influenza/flu epidemics/pandemics that can affect both terrestrial birds and human beings depending upon availability of receptors on host cells. Bats are likely ancient reservoir for a diverse pool of influenza virus. Influenza A viruses naturally circulate in a range of avian and mammalian species, including in humans. The Influenza A serotypes that have been confirmed in humans are, H1N1, H1N2 (en-demic in humans, pigs and birds), H2N2, H3N2, H5N1, H6N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, H7N9, H9N2, and H10N7. Although transmission of AIVs between pigs and humans have already been confirmed, direct transmission from avian to human beings and between human to human is seldom. Segmented nature of the viral RNA genome combined with its error-prone polymerase enzymes can produce novel virus strain(s) with expansion of host range, inter species transmission, higher virulence, multi organ involvement with potential to
64 Clinical and Microbiological Spectrum of Clostridial Myonecrosis from a Tertiary Care Centre , Sukanya Sudhaharan, Kanne Padmaja, Padmasri Chavali and Vijay Dharma Teja
Introduction:Infections due to Clostridium spp is most often seen in traumatic injuries, surgery, malignancy and underlying im-munocompromised conditions. Gas gangrene, the clinical manifestation of Clostridium spp is a diffuse necrotizing infection of deep soft tissues. The infection can develop rapidly following any trauma that compromises the blood supply and is characterized by high mortality. Early Identification of the signs and symptoms in these patients would help in the management and reduce mortality as-sociated with this infection. In this review we presented a series of cases with infection due to Clostridium spp after trauma Materials and Methods:Twelve cases of Clostridium perfringens infections were analysed from our Institute prospectively during the period of 2012 - 2019 (duration of 8 years). The tissue samples from the cases were subjected to direct Gram stain and further inoculated aerobically on Chromogenic agar and 5% sheep blood agar. Anaerobic inoculation was done on 5% sheep blood agar and incubated into anaerobic pouch Results: The median age of the patients were 31 years. All the patients were males. The patients had sustained injury due to road traffic accident (RTA). 5/12 patients had Grade 3 compound fracture of leg, 1/12 patient had injury extending up to thigh, 5/12 pa-tients had crush injury of lower limb, 1/12 patient had crush injury of upper limb.Escherichia coli was the predominant aerobic organism isolated in 7/12 of the patients. The patients were treated surgically with below knee amputation in 10/12, below elbow amputation in 1/12, above knee amputation in 1/12 of patients. All the patients were treated with intravenous penicillin G10 U/day. Eleven patients were discharged in stable condition with advise to follow up. The patient with above knee amputation succumbed to the infection in spite of the treatment. Conclusion:From this study we conclude that early clinical suspicion and microbiological diagnosis helps in the proper management of the patients. Careful and adequate treatment along with antibiotics and all other supportive treatments should be instituted im-mediately will avoid further deterioration and reduce the mortality in these patients
65 Antifungal Activity of Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Voriconazole Amphotericin B and Caspofungin against Candida parapsilosis Blood Isolates , Stephanie Villalobos-Castro, Daniela Jaikel-Víquez, Diego Ortiz-Solano, Luis Enrique Chaves-González and Norma T Gross
Candida albicans is considered the most frequent etiological agent of candidemia worldwide. However, in the last decades there has been a rise in non-albicans Candida spp. causing candidemia. For example, in some Latin American countries Candida parapsilosisis replacing C. albicans as the main species isolated from blood samples. There is also an emerging concern regarding the decrease in susceptibility of non-albicans Candida spp. to first-line antifungals. In Costa Rica, there is limited information about this emerging problem. Thus, the objective of the present investigation was to study the susceptibility pattern of C. parapsilosis blood isolates to flu-conazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin and amphotericin B. Sixty-nine isolates collected from three Type A hospitals were studied. The isolates are part of the Fungal collection of the School of Microbiology, University of Costa Rica. Two reference methods were used to determine antifungal susceptibility. The EUCAST was performed for the azoles and amphotericin B. The end-points for caspofungin are not established by the EUCAST, thus the CLSI method was used instead. Results showed that 29% of the isolates were resistant to fluconazole, 25% to voriconazole, 6% to itraconazole and 3% to caspofungin. As to amphotericin no resistance was found; however, it is noteworthy that 42% of the isolates had minimal inhibitory concentrations of 1 μg ml-1, the upper limit to be considered as sensible. In conclusion, these results highlight the importance of vigilance programs for susceptibility testing of C. parapsilosis involved in candidemia in Costa Rica.
66 Non - Invasive Monitoring and Assessment of Phage Therapy and Phage Targeting in Bovine Brucellosis Employing a Brucella - Specific Biomarker , Anju Mohan and Hari Mohan Saxena
Brucellosis caused by Brucella organisms is a major zoonosis globally. It causes heavy losses through abortions, delayed concep-tion and infertility in animals. Antibiotic therapy is ineffective. Once infected, the animal remains carrier and sheds bacteria in milk, semen and uterine discharges for long period. We have successfully used a lytic brucella phage for therapy of Brucellosis in adult cattle. We also targeted the phage employing the live attenuated Brucella abortus strain 19 organisms to kill the virulent Brucellaresiding intracellularly in phagocytes in the body. The effect of both the therapies was monitored non-invasively employing BrucellaRNA in blood plasma as a Brucella - specific biomarker. A single dose of the phage alone or the therapeutic vaccine (phage pulsed S-19) could substantially reduce and finally eliminate live Brucella in the body within 3 months as evident from diminished and ulti-mately non – detectable RNA characteristic of Brucella abortus (223 bp amplicon) in plasma by RT-PCR. Thus, phage has a potential to cure Brucellosis and abolish carrier state in cattle and RNA can serve as a specific biomarker of live Brucella for monitoring and assessment of the efficacy of the therapy
67 Presence of Syphacia muris in Wistar Rats of a Conventional Animal Care Facility and Treatment for the Eradication of this Parasitosis , Maria Alfonsina Lizárraga
Laboratory animals are essential in research. Genetic and health quality control enables reliable and reproducible experimental data. A very common disease in rodent colony facilities, is a parasitosis caused by the etiological agent, species: Syphacia muris, which belongs to the filo: Nematoda, to the family: Oxyuridae, is an intestinal endoparasite. The life cycle of this parasite is direct, (there is no intermediate host) has a cycle of 7 to 9 days. Syphacia muris Las infections can alter a humoral host's response to parasitic antigen-ic stimuli, and cause a Th2-like immune response with the production of elevated cytokines and induce an autoimmunity mediated by Th2 [1]. Therefore a study was carried out in colonies of rats Wistar strain (adult males and females) of a conventional animal care facility of faculty of medicine of the University of Buenos Aires. A total of 36, 32 y 30 rats were tested. Random samples were taken from animals, by Graham's method. Treatments were: treatment A: Ivermectin administered subcutaneously according to the weight of the animal, every 15 days. Treatment B: Ivermectin administered subcutaneously according to the weight of the animal, each week. In treatment C: Ivermectin was administered orally in drinking water at a concentration of 2ml ivermectin in 500ml of filtered water, for four days and allowed to rest for 3 days, this treatment was repeated for three weeks. Together, spray cage spraying containing an ivermectin solution was performed: 1ml in 250 ml of filtered water. The calculated prevalence rate for each treatment was: treatment A: in the first dose 50% and in the second dose of 75%. In treatment B: a 75% rate was obtained at the first and second doses of 80%. In treatment C: it was 0% in the first and second doses. These results enabled the finding of adequate and effective treatment for the eradication of oxyides. A parasitosis very common and common in all biotheres, but so untreated. Therefore, this work demonstrated that it is possible to be treated, eradicated and controlled to avoid interference and alter experimental responses. However, ensure more reliable results by controlling some variables, such as the health status of animals. Obtaining a good experimental model, ap-plying the uses of 3Rs [10], in terms of reduction when treating infected animals and avoiding the subsequent use of other animals and in refinement when ensuring the welfare of animals.
68 Strain Improvement of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Bridge-induced Chromosome Translocation (BIT) and YAC Recombineering Technology , Burcin Altun, Valentina Tosato and Carlo V Bruschi
The present research deals with implementation of the bridge-induced chromosome translocation (BIT) technology and yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) recombineering for strain improvement of bioethanol producing transgenic yeast. We aimed to construct a YAC that carries cellulose degradation genes on it and then to apply the BIT technology. BIT technology allowed us to gain two advantages; one of them was to stabilize YAC into the yeast genome and the other one was to have increased a gene expression level consequent to the translocation event. Selection strategies were implemented to obtain novel genetic regulation that would achieved the final phenotype originally desired with the high cellulose degradation and high ethanol producing features.In conclusion, in our study, we utilized two novel technologies (Yeast Artificial Chromosome (YAC) recombineering and Bridge-Induced Translocation (BIT) technology to introduce new, multi-factorial genetic traits into a yeast strain, a process that would otherwise take several time-consuming and labor-intensive rounds of genetic engineering. This work describes the successful recombinant translocant yeast that is able to efficiently utilize cellulosic material as a carbon source with highly stable recombinant translocant chromosome and has high level of cellulases capacity
69 Serology: A Precise Tool in Diagnosis and Epidemiology of COVID-19 , Bramhadev Pattnaik, Mahendra P Yadav, Sharanagouda Patil and Pinaki Panigrahi
The coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by a β-Coronavirus, named SARS-CoV-2, has become a global pan-demic since its origin in Wuhan, China during the last week of December 2019, affecting 212 countries and territories in the World involving all the five continents. Prompt and precise diagnosis of the disease is central to its control and eradication. Real- time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) using dual labelled TaqMan probe and targeting two genomic areas, usually RdRp and envelope (E) regions, of the virus is being extensively used for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory clinical specimens. As stage of the infection cannot be ascertained during collection of respiratory specimens for nucleic acid test (NAT; RT-PCR), this may lead to false negatives (error of omission) as virus load in the respiratory exudates and saliva gradually decreases with the increase in time post infection. Virus excretion would be maximum during clinical sickness that follows incubation period of usually up to ~14 days and clinical samples collected during this period are suitable for PCR diagnosis than those collected after clinical sickness. In addition, there are other variables, like quality of swabs and virus transport medium, PCR protocol and reagents, enzyme inhibitors, and proficiency of the manpower engaged in executing diagnostic techniques may affect the quality of the test result. There are three grades of clinical sickness in COVID-19, viz. asymptomatic, mild symptomatic and highly symptomatic. Available data indicate that about 50% of the people exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection may become asymptomatic, as was observed in case of the COVID-19 af-fected Japan cruise ship ‘Diamond Princess’ with 3,711 people on board. In case of asymptomatic and mild symptomatic cases, due to low virus load in the clinical specimens collected, the negative result in NAT/PCR need to be cross checked using a suitable antibody assay. It is known that virus load in the body and the quantum of virus excreted in body fluids gradually decreases with the remission from sickness, whereas quantum of specific antibody against the virus increases with time till plateau. Anti-virus antibody remains in the host for longer duration and can be detected even after clearance of the infection from the body. Therefore, NAT must be comple-mented by antibody test to enhance quality of diagnosis and mitigate errors of omission. Further, unlike NAT/PCR, serology/anti-body test is a powerful tool in tracking virus transmission, estimating actual number of cases, and epidemiological mapping of the disease in a population. Further, availability of a precise antibody test system/assay would be handy for post-pandemic surveillance of COVID-19. The current review includes the results of COVID-19 diagnosis and kinetics of antibody response reported by differ-ent authors/groups of scientists that vouch for quick development of a ‘COVID-19 antibody assay’ system for use in epidemiological studies of the disease
70 Immune Response and Pathogenesis of COVID-19 and The Strategies for Developing Target Drugs , Anju Kaushal
Current pandemic with COVID-19 disease is caused by a novel coronavirus SARSCoV-2, which started from Dec 2019 and still con-tinues. The infection is mainly started by inhalation of virus contaminated droplets. Immune response is produced by both adaptive and innate immunity. Pathogenic stages of virus in the host are asymptomatic stage, non-severe symptomatic and severe- symptom-atic stage. Major- Histocompatibility Antigens/HLA classes regulate the adaptive immune response and pathogenesis. In asymptom-atic stage the person is recovered normally. However, the innate immune response is impaired in the severe symptomatic stages with high lymphopenia in natural killer cells, but other macrophages and monocytes increased fighting the virus; hence they establish a hyperinflammatory state. Immunological regular functions are precluded mainly due to impaired immune response, because virus lapse the protective immunity by NK cells, while favoring its propagation causing inflammations in lungs and other organs such as kidney, liver, spleen etc., could be fatal in later stages.ACE-2 receptors on alveolar cells with proteaseTMPRSS2 allow the spike of virus to make them attach to the cells for easy virus entry. Monocytes and Macrophages produce cytokines can create “Cytokine storm”, a hyper inflammation in lungs. Cytokine storm is a current hallmark of SARSCoV-2 pathogenesis, is triggered by releasing cytokines GSCF, IP10, MIP1A, IL-2, IL-7 and TNF to cause breathing problem, ARDS, and lungs failure subsequently with acute cardiac injury.Evidence based medicines to integrate the clinical experience and patient values with the accurate information available, would provide best treatment for faster patient recovery
71 Current and Future Diagnostic Tests for COVID-19 - Challenges and Recommendations , Anju Kaushal
The diagnostic tests for COVID-19 are ranged from molecular tests (detect the RNA virus) to serological tests (detect the past infection). Most of the molecular tests are being developed are based on the real- time RT-PCR assay. For conducting PCR assay the number of molecular targets has been identified within the RNA of Corona Virus; such as helicase (Hel), nucleocapsid (N), transmem-brane (M), envelop (E) and envelop glycoproteins spike (S). Serological tests are useful in testing past infection in already recovered patients and the convalescent sera of patients with negative PCR findings. These tests are mostly based on the principles of immu-nochromatography, chemiluminescence or ELISA to detect IgG or IgG and IgM together in serum samples. Serodiagnosis is useful in testing convalescent sera of patients with negative PCR findings. However, the cross reactivity with other antibodies is a major challenge to serological tests. From the second week IgM titre increases and then gradually declines 3rd week onwards, but IgG level remain stable around week 4.LAMP, CRISPR and multiplex isothermal amplification followed by the microarray detection methods are being developed around the world, to increase the sensitivity and accuracy for virus detection. LAMP Assay could be a potential alternative to RT-PCR in com-ing future as a point-of -care device assay. DNA amplifies rapidly in isothermal conditions and this tech doesn’t need any specialized equipment. CRISPR-Cas 13 method is also administered, based on specific high-sensitivity enzymatic reporter, unlocks a SHERLOCK protocol for more accuracy and rapidity. NGS is an emerging technology, is used to construct NGS library by amplifying the full length of genes, could be used in epidemiological surveillance and phylogenetic analysis.These emerging technologies can be implemented to provide better, rapid and accurate diagnosis. These could be used for epide-miological purpose in a wider community, without a need for sophisticated equipment and specific training. RT- PCR assays help us to tackle this unprecedented outbreak of COVID-19 which has already impacted people’s lives and econo-my. The rapid tests kits are in high demand for providing services in emergency situations and on the bed side of the patients. These tools are best possible tools providing assistance in saving people’s lives right on time
72 Exploration of New Pathways in Oncology , Simon Raymond
ACTA SCIENTIFIC MICROBIOLOGY (ISSN: 2581-3226) Volume 3 Issue 9 September 2020Exploration of New Pathways in OncologySimon Raymond*Alumnus, Melbourne University, Australia*Corresponding Author: Simon Raymond, Alumnus, Melbourne University, Australia.Short CommunicationReceived: July 11, 2020Published: August 26, 2020© All rights are reserved by Simon Raymond.To date, immunization has consisted of two principle pathways: (1) replication of infective agent; (2) enhancement of immune function. Given the lack of Success of the two current pathways, the current researcher (author) has conceptualised (developed) the new, or third, pathway of site attachment inhibition. The meth-odology surrounding site attachment inhibition therapeutics has been discussed in previous lectures [1-9]. It involves both medi-cation based treatment of established infections and preventative immunization (new generation; stem cell therapy based). New generation immunization involves stem cell therapy (in-cluding mutagenesis and knockout) of particular genetic targets such to achieve immunity (resistance) to infectious agents that is similar to what occurs with hereditary genetic variations/muta-tions
73 Novel Solution for High Efficiency Bee Pollen Heat Pump Dryer , Nguyen Hay, Le Quang Huy and Vo Tan Phuong
The study was conducted to calculate, design, fabricate and test a bee pollen heat pump raking device assisted dryer with a yield of 10 kg/batch. The aim of mixing material is to increase the contact of pollen with drying air, thus, increasing heat exchange, drying efficiency and drying rate. Besides, it reduces energy consumption and increases product uniformity. Experimental planning was car-ried out to determine the influence of operating parameters of the drier on the quality of the dried bee pollen. A set of mathematical equations represents the dependence of electrical energy consumption of the drying process, vitamin C content in the dried pollen and product recovery rate on drying temperature and the raking cycle was determined. The result showed that, at the drying tem-perature of 38.40C and raking cycle of 10 minutes, the drier operates at optimal working condition with the minimum electrical en-ergy consumption Armin = 0.96 kWh/kg, maximum vitamin C content Cmax= 72.11% (256.7 mg/kg) and maximum product recovery rate Mmax = 75.46%
74 A Preliminary Study on Desert Invertebrate Gut - A Metagenomic Evaluation of Bacteria Community , Tirza Doniger, Oksana Koryachenko, Chen Sherman and Yosef Steinberger
The microbiota of the digestive system have recently been at the heart of many studies. Most of these studies dealt with the hu-man digestive tract, e.g. the effect of different types of microbiota on physical and mental health. The objective of this study was to identify the bacterial and fungal populations in the digestive system of common desert invertebrates of different trophic levels. As a preliminary study, we collected four invertebrates that share the same habitat in a desert system in the northern Negev, Israel, over a period of one year. The organisms in which gastrointestinal microbiota were determined included Scorpio palmatus, Adesmia dilatata, Sphincherochila zonata and Hemilepistus reaumuri. Microbial diversity was determined by sequencing DNA harvested from their digestive system. Of a total of 32 orders of bacteria, 26 were present in S. maurus, 22 in S. zonata, 14 in A. dilitata and 8 in H. reaumuri. A significant difference in bacterial diversity was found between S. zonata and A. dilatata. The present study elucidates the importance of the feeding habitat and trophic structure to the microbiotic diversity of the digestive system.
75 Care Seeking Behavior of Citizens During Pandemics: A Case Study of COVID-19 in Nigeria , Olufemi Samuel Amoo
The COVID-19 virus is rapidly crossing borders and spreading across countries and the globe, with 212 countries currently af-fected as of May 2020, 6 months since reports of the first case in November 2019 in Wuhan, China. Global efforts to lessen the im-pact of COVID-19 pandemic span across surveillance, preparedness, response, prevention, testing, contact tracing, and treatment. Co-creation Hub (CcHUB) in collaboration with the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR) and LifeBank developed a digital system to support the process of free testing of suspected COVID-19 cases to respond to the pandemic in Nigeria and deployed it in Lagos. An average of 25% of suspected cases presented for testing after scheduling appointments, meaning only a fourth of the high-risk cases as defined by the system were tested, revealing a drop-out rate of 74%. Preliminary analysis seeking to check which factors are associated with patients who presented themselves for testing yielded no significant factors, forming the rationale for our study.The study was a cross sectional study, seeking to 1) Understand determinants of healthcare seeking behaviors and healthcare utilization during a pandemic, 2) Provide information and guide health planners, administrators and policy makers on factors that enhance effective utilization of structures and platforms for service delivery. The variables collected were: demography and socioeco-nomic status, health status, satisfaction with healthcare system, satisfaction with NIMR service, mode of transport used/to be used and general feedback.Data collection was done using a close-ended survey and social media analysis - analysing twitter sentiments around COVID-19 testing in Nigeria. 300 study participants from a target population of 566 were selected using a simple random sampling for a finite population. Descriptive statistics and analysis looking for association (odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI), including bivariate and multivariate unconditional logistic regression) were conducted using STATA 16.Our results show that distance to facility, preexisting health conditions, knowledge of COVID-19 symptoms, previous healthcare experience, type of and frequency of communication influence healthcare seeking behavior of Nigerians, specifically during CO-VID-19. We recommend that the strategic placement of testing centers and increasing knowledge of disease could enhance service utilization
76 Genetic Factor of Mental Illness , Suraj Kumar Yadav
This article provide a comprehensive and readable primer on the complex interplay of genetic and environmental factor in mental disorder. This article contain finest information and basic knowledge of mental problems and causes. This article is a concise and original summary of method and guidelines in the field of genetic factor of mental problems. It include all types and causes related to mental illness. With its admirable blend, this book will helpful to professionals in various manners.
77 Assessment of an Immersion Technique for Generating of Borrelia burgdorferi-Infected and Infectious Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus Ticks , Djamel Tahir, Alec Evans, Nouha Lekouch, Frans Jongejan, Valérie Choumet, Byron Blagburn, Reinhard K Straubinger and Marie Varloud
Experimental infection of ticks with pathogens such as spirochetes of the genus Borrelia (B.), is a critical step to better under-stand the mechanisms and the kinetics of infection. At present, four procedures for infection of ticks with B. burgdorferi have been described: (i) feeding ticks on infected rodents; (ii) tick immersion in a solution containing the spirochetes; (iii) microinjection of spi-rochetesdirectly into the tick gut and (iv) capillary or membrane feeding of ticks with a solution or blood containing Borrelia species. organisms. To reduce the use of live animals and for standardization of the conditions of experiments, the three latter procedures are recommended. The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of an immersion procedure to generate B. burgdorferi-infect-ed ticks and determine whether Ixodes scapularis and I. ricinus ticks were infective to dogs. Pathogen free, unfed larvae (I. scapularisand I. ricinus) and nymphs (I. scapularis) were immersed in BSK-H medium containing approximately 107B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (strain B31) organisms per mL. Immersed ticks were then fed to repletion on rabbits and held under optimum environmental condi-tions (22°C and 80 ± 10% relative humidity) for moulting. The infection rate in ticks was determined after moulting by qPCR, while their potential infectivity was evaluated on dogs. It was found that immersed larvae and nymphs acquired spirochetes. The spirochet-es were detected by qPCR in 18.7% and 37.5% of adult I. ricinus and I. scapularis,respectively. For nymphs, B. burgdorferi-specific DNA was detected in each of three pools of 20 I. scapularis. Nevertheless, all infested dogs remained seronegative during the three months after infestation and no clinical signs of borreliosis were detected
78 UniKin1: A Universal, Non-Species-Specific Whole Cell Kinetic Model , Madhurya V Murthy, Dakshahini Balan, Nur Jannah Kamarudin, Victor CC Wang, Xue Ting Tan. Avettra Ramesh, Shermaine SM Chew, Nikita V Yablochkin, Karthiga Mathivanan and Maurice HT Ling
Mathematical models of metabolism can be a useful tool for metabolic engineering. Genome-scale models (GSMs) and kinetic models (KMs) are the two main types of models. GSMs provide steady-state fluxes while KMs provide time-course profile of metabo-lites, which has more advantage in identifying metabolic bottlenecks. However, KMs require greater degree of accuracy for param-eters than GSMs resulting in fewer large-scale KMs than GSMs. Recently, large-scale KMs have been developed but are not based on standard enzymatic rate equations resulting in difficulty in interpreting results in terms of enzyme kinetics. Here, we construct a universal, non-species-specific KM of core metabolism, based on Michaelis-Menten Equation, from glucose to the 20 amino acids and 5 nucleotides based on reactions listed in Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). Non-species specificity is achieved by using the same Michaelis-Menten constant (Km), turnover number (Vmax), and concentration for each metabolite and enzyme for each equation. This forms a base model for developing species-specific whole cell KMs. The resulting model consists of 566 reac-tions, 306 metabolites, and 310 enzymes, involving in 1284 metabolite productions, and 1249 metabolite usages. Sensitivity analysis shows that 85% of the metabolite concentration changes with the change of one enzyme kinetic parameter. This forms a base model for developing species-specific whole cell KMs
79 Study of Antibiotic Resistance against Fourth Generation Cephalosporins in Escherichia coli , Mehwish Saleem
The large majority of antibiotics currently used for treating infections and the antibiotics resistant genes acquired by human pathogens are gaining resistance against antibiotics day by day. Fourth generation cephalosporins are β-lactam antibiotics, pos-sess an extra ammonium group, which allows them to rapidly penetrate through the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli; enhancing their activity. Enteric Escherichia coli are both natural flora of human and important pathogen causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide by acquiring resistance. The resistance profile of Escherichia coli may be sensitive or highly resistant. To test resistance (n = 60) samples were used. These clinical samples helped in evaluation of sensitivity and resis-tance against fourth generation cephalosporin in Escherichia coli. Gram staining and various morphological as well as biochemical test were performed to identify Escherichia coli. From (n = 60) samples, (n = 32) 53% samples showed resistance against Cefepime. In these resistant strains most of them were females (n = 35) and remaining of males (n = 25). It indicates high onset of fourth genera-tion cephalosporin resistance in Escherichia coli. From (n = 60) samples, (n = 28) 47% samples showed sensitivity towards Cefepime. These findings suggested that some mechanism or genetic mutations are there which inducing resistance in Escherichia coli towards antibiotics. There is an urgent need to control such alarming resistance
80 Making MIC Work for You: Utilizing PK and PD Parameters , Dharmendra Sharma and Ashok Rattan.
MIC or MBC has been used as indicator of antibiotic potency towards a pathogen and as surrogate marker for clinical efficacy when the selected antibiotic is used in the patient, but these parameters are static measures and do not adequately reflect the dy-namic process that takes place in a patient. To better predict the clinical efficacy of the drug we need to take into consideration the pharmacokinetics (what the host does to the drug) and the pharmacodynamics (what the drug does to the bug) and to obtain the three PK/PD parameters each of which depends upon the MIC value obtained but better predictive the clinical efficacy of the selected antibiotic.
81 Spectrum and Antibiogram of Bacteria Isolated from Commercially Available Stockfish in Eke-Awka Market, Anambra Nigeria , Malachy C Ugwu, Ebube Ofoegbu and Kene C Ezejiegu
Background: Food borne infections and diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among poor/developing countries. Food products play significant role in the transfer of antibiotic resistance. There is increasing evidence of the use of antibiotics in fish rearing as growth promoters or curative agents and this could promote antibiotic selective pressure which results in emergence of resistant organisms in these sea foods. This study is aimed at isolating and determining the spectrum and antibiogram of bacteria isolated from commercially available stock fishes in eke Awka market. Method: The isolated samples were obtained from randomly selected samples of stock fishes using pour plate method and confirmed with the help of microscopy and biochemical test. The antibiogram of the isolates were examined following Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute breakpoints. Results: A total of 70 samples of stock fishes were collected from the market. Staphylococcus aureus was the most contaminant (45.7%) in the samples, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (41.1%), Bacillus subtilis (30%), Escherichia coli (15.7%), Salmonella typhi (5.7%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.3%). The isolates showed resistance to most of antibiotics used. Gentamicin and Ofloxacin had appreciable activity against all Gram positive isolated bacteria while Gentamicin and Nitrofurantoin having activity against some Gram negative bacteria. Conclusion: The study confirmed the presence of antibiotics-resistant bacteria in stock fishes, making it a potential public health threat. This calls for improved hygienic practices among the fish vendors and there should be rational use of antibiotics in fish farming
82 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-Coronavirus (CoV)-2 Versus SARS-CoV: So Similar Yet So Different , Saloni Gupta and Sonam Gupta.
Starting in the Wuhan city of China, the indiscriminate spread of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and sudden escalation in the number of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) cases has brought desolation to mankind. To control the ongoing disastrous pandemic, it is important to congregate the highest level of information on the ecology of this notorious microbe. The similarities between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV can be traced back to their phylogenetic relationship, however, gaining insight into the divergent features of the novel coronavirus demands extensive research. This article brings together the previously known facts about SARS-coronaviruses and contrasts them with the new findings on SARS-CoV-2 from the most recent studies for future reference
83 Trends of Entamoeba histolytica Infections in a Tertiary Care Hospital of South India - A Three Year Perspective Study , Gunalan Anitha, Mugunthan M, Nonika Rajkumari and Gopika Jayan
Background: Amoebiasis is still a leading cause of intestinal parasitic infections in the world. It can be asymptomatic or manifest a wide variety of presentation and hence its diagnosis of the pathogenic from the non-pathogenic is quite challenging. Methodology: However, a changing pattern has been observed over the years with this pathogen. This study tried to explore the changing trends in patients infected with this pathogen over a period of 3 years. Results:E. histolytica microscopy was positive in 55 cases with no gender predisposition. Most of the patients presented with mild abdominal pain associated with diarrhea. In this study we found that there is a decrease in prevalence of infection caused by vari-ous Entamoeba species. The overall positivity of infection was 3% during the study period, which could most probably be due to improper sanitation favouring the transmission of the disease. Conclusion: There has been increasing trend towards the non-pathogenic ones being recovered from the patients. This observation is especially applicable in light of the fact that expanding significance has been given to generally nonpathogenic species such as E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, since invasive amoebiasis has been exhibited to be related with these species. All things considered, the determinants of invasive amoebiasis are complicated and furthermore include different host factors
84 Suboptimal Adherence and Associated Factors Contributing to Virological Failure on First Line ART at a Private Tertiary Care Centre in South India: Implications for Individualized Adherence Interventions in Resource-limited Settings , Laxman G Jessani, Ram Gopalakrishnan, Suresh D, S Nambi and V Ramasubramanian
Background:Suboptimal adherence to ART can lead to HIV drug resistance. We studied the incidence and factors leading to first-line ART failure and the socio-demographic, behavioral and clinical risk factors associated with non-adherence to ART. Methods:We carried out a retrospective case-controlstudy of adult HIV-1 positive patients who were on first line ART over a period of 10 years. Adherence and history of treatment interruptions for > 48h were noted by self-report. Kaplan Meier survival curves (Figure 2) were used to estimate the median time to first line ART treatment failure. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard model were used to predict ART treatment failure. Results: Among 290 participants, 80 (27.58%) cumulatively had first-line failure. Patients who had virological failure on first line ART were taken as cases (n = 80) and those who were virologically suppressed were taken as controls (n = 210). Mean time to failure was41.16 ± 11.11 months.45% failed after more than 5 yrs on treatment: only4% failed within the first 6 months.Lower baseline CD4 count, WHO stage IV, CDC stage 3 and poor adherence were significantly associated with first line failure.70% of patients re-ported suboptimal adherence while 68% reported treatment interruptions.Poor adherence was significantly associated with viro-logical failure (P < 0.001) with OR = 4.22 (2.68 - 6.62) and CD4 count < 200 andART duration > 3 years was associated with poorer adherence. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates a strong association between suboptimal adherence, virological failure and drug resistance among patients on first-line ART
85 A Venture to Discover the Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID 19): SARS-CoV-2 , Soumitra Sahana, Sourav Nag, Prasit Roy, Reshmi Paul, Sk Abdur Rahamat, Indranil Chatterjee, Suman Kumar Nath and Snehansu Biswas
In December 31, 2019, hospitals pronounced a cluster of instances with pneumonia of unknown motive in Wuhan, Hubei, China, attracting brilliant interest nationally and worldwide. The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 precipitated by means of the SARS-CoV-2 offers an unheard of venture to discover superb capsules for treatment. Given the speedy tempo of scientific discovery and medical statistics generated by means of the massive quantity of human beings unexpectedly contaminated by using SARS-CoV-2, cli-nicians want correct proof involving nice clinical remedies for this infection. This paper analysis the literature on all on hand records about the Treatments of COVID-19. Treatments, together with Antibodies, Vaccines, antiviral agents, convalescent plasma transfu-sion, corticosteroids, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, are mentioned in this article.
86 A Review on Teicoplanin Used as Alternative Drug to Treat the Novel Corona Virus (COVID – 19) , Anirban Adhikary, Kakoli Halder, Debmalya Ghosh, Snehansu Biswas, Indranil Chatterjee and Suman Kumar Nath
In December 2019, another coronavirus, named SARS-CoV-2, has risen up out of China causing pneumonia episodes first in the Wuhan locale and have now spread overall in view of its plausible high transmission productivity. Because of the absence of pro-ductive and explicit medicines and the need to contain the pestilence, medicate repurposing has all the earmarks of being the best instrument to discover remedial arrangement. Chloroquine, remdesivir, lopinavir, ribavirin or ritonavir have demonstrated viability to restrain coronavirus in vitro. Teicoplanin, an anti-microbial used to treat staphylococci disease, recently demonstrated adequacy to hinder the principal phase of MERS coronavirus viral cycle in human cells. This action is preserved on the SARS-Cov-2, accordingly putting teicoplanin as an expected treatment for patients with this infection.
87 SARS-COV-2 had Changed the World before Virus Detection , Indranil Chatterjee, Suman Kumar Nath and Soumitra Sahana
As we stay here secured down our homes while COVID-19 com-promises how we carry on with our carries on with; one ponders the old life we drove. We rarely stressed over contact with others, or individuals strolling past us in the road. At the point when we got a viral disease, the greater part of us thought of a cold or influ-enza, and anticipated throbs, torments, and a stodgy head, how-ever not many of us dreaded death toll. What's more, relatively few individuals were keen on points, for example, testing rates, testing techniques, or testing speeds. Be that as it may, some were. The papers in this virtual issue are by a portion of the specialists that have been creating tests to recognize infections
88 Gastrointestinal and Liver Disorders Encountered during the Covid-19-Pandemic-Strategies to Overcome and Nutritional Input to Boost Immunity , Kulvinder Kochar Kaur, Gautam Allahbadia and Mandeep Singh
e had reviewed on various aspects of COVID-19-disease from structure, presentation management, pregnancy and lactation, management of severe COVID-19-disease and effects on reproduc-tive system [1-5]. Here we have emphasized on the GIT involve-ment aspect, besides liver and implications on endoscopy practice worldwide in, COVID-19 era. Digestive symptoms including an-orexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea (N, V, D) - frequently reported in patients with COVID-19-disease [CD]. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was first detected in stool of the 1st reported CD-19 case in the USA, who also presented with the digestive symptoms of (N, V, D). In the big-gest cohort-1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed CD-19 from 552 hospitals in China in January 2020, N, V, D were reported in 55 (5%) and 42 (3.8%) patients, respectively. Of the 204 patients with CD-19 and full investigations, 99 (48.5%) presented with digestive symptoms as main complaint. Patients with digestive symptoms had separate manifestations, like anorexia (83.8%), V, D and abdominal pain (0.4%). Digestive symptoms - might be pre-senting prior to respiratory symptoms, or only symptoms of CD-19
89 Forest and Soil: An Intrinsic Relationship , Abhishek Raj
Forest is pure, virgin and largest natural resources that harbor variety of flora and fauna that intensify ecosystem services. There is a great synergy between forest and soils. Soil is not less; it is another largest natural resource which plays major role in vegeta-tional dynamics, structure, compositions and diversity. Soil sup-ports other natural resources like forests, humans, animals etc. and make sustainable ecosystem for better environment. Looking on an intrinsic relationship among forests and soils, many ques-tions revolve in my mind “How soil makes better forests?” Is there any synergy between forest and soil?” and “How both soil and for-est makes sustainable environment?” These questions triggered my soul. It is cent percent true that a great link exist between for-est and soil that enhance biodiversity which intensify ecosystem services and maintains soil-food-climate security for sustainable development
90 An Insight into the Coronavirus , Priyanka Kulkarni and Jayant Londhe
The Coronavirus outbreak has brought the Science fraternity to put some light on the history and evolution of the virus and also the design of the effective drug and its potential target. Coronavirus consists of a positive strand RNA genome and four characteristic structural proteins, active and viable below 560C. Surprisingly, all the strains of Coronaviruses are found to be residing in bats for long period of time along with the Malayan pangolins, a group of mammals. The SARS-CoV-2 has significant similarities with SARS-CoV and SARsSr- RaTGL3 in the sequences of conserved non-structural proteins and exhibit 96.2% genome similarity with SARsSr- RaTGL3 virus. However, a unique feature of SARS-CoV2 is the presence of the four amino acid residue sequence at S1/S2 junction which is required to be cleaved by Furin-like enzymes for efficient membrane fusion of host and the virus. This distinguishing feature gives a reason to become a promising factor for drug target studies. However, the infectious diseases could be effectively controlled by vac-cine. Hence, there are some promising candidate vaccines entered into Phase III of Clinical trials designed by Sinovac, Moderna Inc and AstraZeneca/Oxford University in collaboration with Serum Institute of India.
91 How Reliable is Your Covid 19 Tests? Need to Validate and Verify Covid 19 Tests in the Laboratory Before Clinical Use , Amit Pruthi, Maneesh Baghi, Ashok Rattan and Sanjeev Vashishta
On the last day of last year, China informed World Health Organisation was a cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, caused by a novel coronavirus, which was identified as SARS CoV 2 based on sequences of viral agent available by 10th January 2020 and RT PCR tests developed to identify this RNA virus. The disease caused by this virus was labelled as Covid 19. The rapid spread of this virus from China to all parts of the world including India, led this outbreak to be labelled as a pandemic.In January 2020, India had only one laboratory testing for Covid 19, at the Indian Council of Medical Research’s National Insti-tute of Virology, Pune. In Mid September, the testing facilities had been ramped upto 1700 laboratories, both in the government and private set up, across the country, performing molecular tests for diagnosis of Covid 19 - an unparallel achievement in the history of Indian health system
92 Alteration of Platelets Indices in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patient , Kolomi Muhammad Lawan and Avinash Kumar
New platelet functions on immunity and inflammation as well as thrombosis have recently emerged as a result of advances from an automated full blood count (CBC) analyser. One of the fastest and easiest tests to confirm platelet function is the platelet indices. Such platelet indices include the width of the platelet (PDW), mean platelet volume (MPV), and platelet crit. World Health Organiza-tion (WHO) reported that about 8.6 million cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were estimated to have occurred in 2012 alone most of which were recorded in Asia and Africa, with India and China responsible for 38% of the total number of cases. Thus, this article was instigated to update on platelet indices and their roles in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis
93 The Role of Xenobiotic Enzyme Genes of the First and Second Phases in the Pathogenesis of Fetal Growth Restriction Syndrome , Mavlyanova NN
The article presents the results of molecular genetic studies of genes of biotransformation enzymes of xenobiotics of the first and second phase in pregnant women with fetal growth restriction syndrome. Using the del/del genotype variants of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes and G alleles of the GSTP1 gene, one can determine the prognosis of the risk of developing fetal loss syndrome, charac-terized by impaired detoxification during pregnancy