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Paper Details

The possible anti-inflammatory role of the blue green algae ,Aphanizomenon flos-aquae on skin of adult male rats

Hemmat Mansour Abdelhafez and Rasha Mohammed Ibrahim

Journal Title:Journal of Bioscience and Applied Research

Aphanizomenon flose-aquae (AFA) is a fresh water unicellular blue green microalgae like Spirulina, but most AFA is harvested from the wild in volcanic regions leading to high levels of trace minerals. It has been traditionally used for over 25 years for its health-enhancing properties. Aphanizomenon flos-aquae is an important source of the blue photosynthetic pigment phycocyanin (PC), which has been described as a strong antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent. Aim of the study: this study aimed to examine the possible anti-inflammatory effect of AFA against the inflammation induced by carrageenan injection on skin of adult male rats using histpathological and histochemical studies.Matrerial and methods: the current experiment was carried out on 48 adult male albino rats (Rattus rattus). Rats were randomly and equally categorized into four groups: 1) Control group (C): rats were left without treatment; 2) Carr group: rats were injected with carrageenan and left for 21 days ; 3) AFA group: rats were orally administrated Aphanizomenon flos- aquae (AFA) extract (94.5 mg/kg body weight /day) for 21 days and 4) AFA+ Carr Group: rats were injected with carrageenan and treated with 94.5 mg/kg body weight AFA extract daily after six hours of carrageenan injection for 21 days. The experimental rats were sacrificed after 5 and 21 days post– treatment. Results: Examination of skin tissue of rats five and twenty one day’s post-carrageenan injection revealed many histopathological and histochemical changes such as marked destructed epidermal and dermal layers. The epidermal layer showed undetectable cellular structure, thickened keratin layer. Signs of fibrosis and absence of hair follicles were detected in some areas, in addition to the presence of debris of degenerated cells in the dermal layer. Hair follicles were distorted with numerous fibroblasts in the dermal layer, some of them were hypertrophied, in addition to the presence of large granulomatous area in the dermal layer, discontinuous and faintly stained skeletal muscle fibres were noticed. Most of them showed decreased staining affinity of nuclei of mycocytes (karyolysis) with signs of fatty degeneration. Highly increased collagen fibres and fibrotic areas were detected in the epidermal and dermal layers. Skin tissues examined five and twenty one days following AFA administration showed normal appearance of the epidermal and dermal layers, highly increased and well developed hair follicles with their sebaceous glands were detected with normal distribution to some extent, of collagen fibres. Skin tissues of rats administrated with AFA for twenty one days post-carrageenan injection and examined after five and twenty one days showed striking recovery as compared to the skin of carrageenan group only, but increased collagen fibres in the dermal layer were detected after five days while normal distribution of collagen fibres were demonstrated after twenty one days. The quantitative histochemical measurements recorded a significant increase in PAS+ve materials , total protein and amyloid β -protein in the carrageenan injected group while supplementation with AFA alone or AFA post carrageenan injection showed a trend toward lowering incidence of skin histochemical changes induced by carrageenan injection. Skin tissues of carrageenan group showed a significant increase in mast cells count in the dermal layer after five and twenty one days post-treatment. AFA treated group exhibited non-significant increase of mast cells in the dermal layer all over the experimental periods, while rats administrated AFA post-carrageenan injection exhibited a significant increase in count of mast cells after five days and non-significant increase after twenty one days Conclusion: using Aphanizomenon flos- aquae as a natural agent exerted a marked antiinflammatory role against the histopathological and histochemical lesions induced by carrageenan injection.