REVIEW ARTICLE: Maternal Infections Associated with Bad Obstetric Outcome: Toxoplasmosis and Rubella.
Abdulghani Mohamed Alsamarai, Editor-in-Chief, International Journal of Medical Sciences. Tikrit University College of Medicine.
Hala Majeed Hassan, Tikrit University College of Veterinary Medicine, Tikrit, Iraq.
Journal Title:Aalborg Academy Journal of Medical Sciences
Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the obligated intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is one of the most prevalent chronic infections affecting one third of the world's human population . The prevalence of T. gondii infection varies among different geographical regions. The infection is characterized by non-specific signs with the consequent formation of cysts that may stay in latent form in many organs . Primary infection is usually subclinical but in some patient's cervical lymphoadenopathy or ocular disease can be present . There are four groups of individuals in whom the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is most critical: pregnant women who obtain their infection during gestation, fetuses and newborns who are congenitally infected, immune compromised patients, and those with chorioretinitis . Although these infections are usually either asymptomatic or associated with self-limited signs in adults [e.g., fever, malaise, and lymphoadenopathy], infections in pregnant women can cause severe health problems in the fetus if the parasites are transmitted [i.e., congenital toxoplasmosis] and cause severe sequelae in the infant including mental retardation, blindness, and epilepsy