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REVIEW ARTICLE: Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Type -2 in Women with Abnormal Pregnancy Outcomes: A Review

Mohamed Almoustafa Alsamarai, Laboratory Investigation Department. Bayan Bahauldean Faraj, Kirkuk Health Authority, Kirkuk, Iraq Correspondence author: Mohamed Almoustafa Alsamarai, Laboratory Investigation Department, Samara University College of Applied Sciences (SUCOAS), Samara, Iraq.

Journal Title:Aalborg Academy Journal of Medical Sciences

Background: The role of T. gondii, rubella, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus type -2 was not fully understood as the range of Seroepidemiology of these agents was with a wide range. The reported studies results were affected by study design and patients selection criteria. Aim: To determine the role of ToRCH agents on pregnancy outcomes Materials and methods: Published articles on the role of ToRCH agents in women with bad obstetrics history retrieved from Google and reviewed. For T. gondii 19 global studies and 36 Arab countries were reviewed, while for rubella 24 global studies and 16 Arab countries were included. In addition, 19 global and 18 Arab countries for CMV, while 14 HSV-2 global and 6 Arab countries studies were reviewed. Results: T. gondii IgG and IgM seroprevalence range in global studies were 5.33% - 91.2% and 1.2% - 84.4% respectively. While the corresponding values in Arab countries studies was 6.8% - 81.5% and 0.79% and 58.1% respectively. Rubella IgG seroprevalence range was 3.6% - 91.2% in global studies and 1.05% - 93.3% in Arab countries studies. Additionally, rubella IgM seroprevalence was 1.2% - 98.4% in global studies and 1.5% - 62.3% in Arab countries studies. CMV IgG seroprevalence range was 8.3% - 99.4% in global studies and 4.8% - 97.8% in Arab countries studies. While CMV IgM seroprevalence range in global studies was 0% - 81.1% and 0% - 65% in Arab countries studies. HSV-2 IgG seroprevalence range was 6.66% - 97.6% in global studies and 29.1% - 60.6% in Arab countries studies. While HSV-2 IgM seroprevalence range was 0% - 76.2% in global studies and 3.1% - 73.9% in Arab countries studies. Conclusions: This review indicated that IgG and IgM seroprevalence ranges for ToRCH agents in global, Arab countries and Iraqi studies were with a wide range and indicated that ranges were affected by sample size of study population. IJMS May 2019;2(2):5-17;ISSNe 2522-7836 6 Key words: T. gondii, Cytomegalovirus, Rubella, Herpes simplex virus, Global, Arab countries, Bad obstetrics history, Bad obstetrics outcome.