CASE REPORT: Unexpected Noninvasive Procedure in the Treatment of Bronchobiliary Fistula (BBF): Case Report
Wadhah Mahdi Saleem Albadir, Department of Anesthesia, College of Medical Technology, Alkitab University, Kirkuk, Iraq.
Journal Title:Aalborg Academy Journal of Medical Sciences
Introduction Bronchobiliary fistula is an abnormal connection between the bronchial tree and biliary tract and it is one of the rare diseases , but with high morbidity and mortality . BBF is either congenital  or acquired . Acquired BBF may be a consequence of local infections (amoebic liver abscess, complicated liver hydatid disease or pyogenic hepatic abscess), neoplasm, biliary tract obstruction, and trauma [5-62]. In a systematic review of 68 cases, Liao et al , 2011, reported that BBF cause was tumors (32.3%; 19.1% primary tumors; 13.2% metastatic tumors), followed by biliary stenosis (18%), cholangiolithiasis (13%), hepatic hydatidosis (12%), trauma (10%), multiple primary or single primary disease (6% for each) and chronic pancreatitis (3%). In 2012 Cao et al , reported a case in 48 years old male with hepatocellular carcinoma. In 2015, Dai et al  reported a case of BBF in a 65-year-old male with a hepatic abscess. In 70- year- old male, 2016, Hay et al  reported that BBF was developed following hepatectomy of a recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma. Other cases of BBF was reported , 2016, in 77 year old female with hepatocellular carcinoma; in 2017, in 55 year old female with hydatid cyst ; In 2018, a 70-year-old male after pacreaticoduodenectomy , a 61-year-old male after radiofrequency ablation for HCC  and in 53-year-old female with breast cancer that was metastasized to liver . While in 2015, BBF case reported in 3.5-year-old child after liver abscess rupture . In Iraq, one review , in 2014, 14 cases of BBF were reported for the period from 2004 to 2010, four of them are with previous surgery to liver or right pulmonary hydatid cyst and 10 cases were with lower thoracic or penetrating abdominal injuries. Although the first case of BBF was reported by Peacock in 1850 , however, the incidence of BBF still a rare clinical condition.