Effects of Cooperative Learning and Contingency Contracting on Mathematics Achievement of Pupils with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Delta State, Nigeria
Asamaigo, E. E. and Okoiye, O. E.
Journal Title:Journal of Research in Education and Society
This study aimed at evaluating the effects of Co-operative Learning Strategy and Contingency Contracting Technique on mathematics achievement of pupils with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Delta State, Nigeria using the pretest, posttest, control group quasi-experimental research design with a 3x2x2 factorial matrix. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 90 participants from three public primary schools in three local government areas of Delta State. The participants were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Participants in the two treatment groups were exposed to eight weeks of Co-operative Learning Strategy and Contingency Contracting Technique. Two instruments used were: Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Teacher Rating Scale and Woodcock-Johnson III Mathematics Fluency Achievement Tests Scale. Data were analysed using Analysis of Covariance and MCA. Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and accompanying learning difficulties in mathematics experience considerable degree of helplessness as a result of their inability to successfully solve mathematical problems. It is observed that while, Co-operative learning strategy is more effective in improving mathematics competence skills of pupils with ADHD than contingency contracting technique, Co-operative learning strategy and contingency contracting technique are effective in improving mathematics achievement of pupils with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Therefore, it is recommended that teachers of pupils with ADHD and accompanying learning difficulties in mathematics should adopt the two strategies to reinforce positive attitude to teaching learning situation of these children.