Biomass from Fusarium Venenatum and Preliminary Characterization of Bioactives: Exploration of Hypolipidemic Potential
Patil SD, Shetane TD, Singha RG, Choudhary DM, Nanda RK, D’souza OR and Thomas AB*
Journal Title:Open Access Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
Fusarium venenatum derived mycoprotein (biomass) marketed under the trade name Quorn has been designated as a source of first class protein with low cholesterol. Our previous study, demonstrates the significant anti-hyperlipidemic potential of biomass in acute Triton X-100 induced hyperlipidemic model in rats and anti-oxidant activity by DPPH assay. The biomass was produced through cost effective fermentation process in Vogel’s mineral medium using sucrose as the carbon source optimized using Central Composite Response Surface Design (CCRSD). In continuation to our previous reported work, in the current study the hypolipidemic potential of biomass was studied in the chronic high fat diet induced hyperlipidemic model in rats. The high fat diet fed rats showed significant increase in plasma lipid levels [total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL)] with decreased high density lipoproteins (HDL) levels. Biomass (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) and simvastatin (10 mg/kg) administered orally reduced the elevated serum lipids (TC, TG, VLDL, LDL), restored the decreased HDL and improved the atherogenic index (p<0.01). Also the treatment with biomass decreased the liver enzymes levels (SGOT, SGPT) comparable to standard treated group. The biomass treatment also improved histoarchitecture of hepatocytes in hyperlipidemic rats. The acute oral toxicity study carried out as per OECD guidelines demonstrated the safety of the biomass. LC-MS analysis of methanolic extract of biomass showed two major peaks (Compound 1: m/e 209.10 and Compound 2: m/e 329.25). Spectral matching with NIST libraries indicated that compound 2 may be structurally similar to pregnenolone, a naturally occurring steroid. Also, compound 1 may be 4- aminothiophenol, N,S,-diacety (m/e 209.10). These probable bioactives, exhibits varied biological activities including for the treatment of inflammation, and its related disorders as suggested by literature reports. In conclusion, the study proves the hypolipidemic potential of biomass derived from Fusarium venenatum in preclinical acute and chronic animal models. Further investigations to isolate the bioactives and elucidate the probable mechanisms and role in triggering hypolipidemic activity need to be undertaken.