Seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and brucella abortus in dairy animals from the Sudan: special emphasis to their serological co-existence
Abdalla Mohamed Ibrahim, Tamador Elkhansa Elnour Angara, Ahmed Ali Ismail
Journal Title:Journal of Applied Veterinary Sciences
Toxoplasmosis and brucellosis are the most common zoonotic food borne diseases worldwide. The abortion caused by these agents is one of the major causes of socio-economic losses in human and livestock. We thus conducted a cross-sectional study during October 2012 to April 2014 to determine the seroprevalence and the co-existence of Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella abortus in dairy cattle and the co-herded camels, sheep and goats in the Khartoum State using different serological techniques. The study revealed over all seroprevalence of 94.9% at herd level and 63.2% at individual level. T. gondii and B. abortus seroprevalence were 46.2% and 22.7% respectively. Seroprevalence of these zoonosis showed highly statistically significant (p<0.01) differences among different localities and different animals species. Antibody to T. gondii was found to be more prevalent in Sheep, goats and camels respectively while antibody against B. abortus was more prevalent in cattle and camels. Mixed antibodies against the two zoonotic agents were detected in almost all seropositive herds (99.1%). Only one seropositive herd (0.9%) revealed a single Brucella abortus infection. Mix-infection was observed in 16.2% out of all seropositive animals. The univariate analysis of different localities and different animal species showed significant (p<0.01) association with mix-infection seropositivity. Increasing odds ratios without significant (p>0.05) associations were observed in the multivariate analysis of districts and animals species (odds=2.588, CI 95%) for cattle and (odds=2.200, CI 95%) for camels compared to goats as reference. Generally, the present results were the first comprehensive data explaining the serological co-existence of T. gondii and B. abortus as zoonotic organisms in Sudanese food animals. We came to conclude that, the exposure to these organisms as well as their co-infection may play a significant role in the economic losses in dairy farm industry in the country. Moreover, the great public health importance of T. gondii, B. abortus and their co-existence could not be neglected. Further studies to elucidate their socio-economic consequences in man and his livestock are recommended.