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Paper Details

PREVALENCE OF AUTOIMMUNE HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA IN HIV INFECTED ANEMIC ADULTS, AT TIKUR ANBESSA SPECIALIZED TEACHING HOSPITAL, ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA

1 Mignot Taye, 2 Mintewab Hussein, 3 Jemal Alemu, 4 Tsegahun Asfaw

Journal Title:International Journal of Medical Studies
Abstract


Background: A high prevalence of anemia was observed in HIV-infected individuals. Presence of auto-antibody also contributes for the development of anemia in HIV positive individuals. Few studies are conducted to show the prevalence of anemia in HIV positive individuals, but there is no documented data that rule out the prevalence of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) in HIV positive individuals in Ethiopia. Objective: Determine the prevalence of autoimmune hemolytic anemia in HIV-infected adult patients at Tikur Anbessa Specialized teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: Hospital based cross sectional study was conducted on 384 HIV positive individuals using convenient sampling method from June 5, 2018 to September 10, 2019. Participants’ soco-demographic data, CD4 result and some important information was extracted from participants’ recorded data. Venous blood (5 ml) was collected for determination of HGB, RBC count, RBC indices, reticulocyte count and CBC results. After all, DAT was performed and blood film examination was done to confirm hemolysis. Finally data was analyzed using SPSS version 21 statistical soft ware package, and Descriptive statistic and Chi-square tests were used. Result: Of 384 study participants, 9 (2.34 %) patients are found to be AIHA positive. Of these, 6 (66.7 %) were females and 3 (33.3 %) were males. Nineteen patients had positive DAT result; 10 (52.6 %) had mild anemia, 4 (21 %) moderate and 5 (26.3 %) severe anemia respectively. 37 (9.6 %) patients showed reticulocytopinea, while 31(8.1 %) patients had shown reticulocytosis. From 26 patients who showed evidence for the presence of hemolysis in their blood film, two individuals showed +2 graded hemolysis whereas 24 patients showed +1 graded hemolysis. Conclusion: Prevalence of AIHA in HIV patients is not common. But it can be cause of anemia, most of the time in patients with severe-moderate ranged anemia and in patients with low CD4 count. Keywords: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, HIV, Anemic Adult, Ethiopia.

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