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Paper Details

Bioactivity of Endophytes from the Brazilian Tropical Savannah

Andréa Cristina Bogas, Flavia Luana Torres, Cristina Paiva de Sousa and Paulo Teixeira Lacava

Journal Title:Acta Scientific Microbiology

The Brazilian tropical savannah is a mosaic biome, the second largest in the Brazilian territory and the most biodiverse tropical savannah in the world. Endophytes and host plants have asymbiotic relationship, in which both are beneficial. The host plant pro-vides protection to the endophytes, which, in turn, increase the fitness of the plant by inducing resistance to pathogens due to niche competition and/or synthesizing antibiotics, lytic enzymes and siderophores. Although initial studies on endophytes were directed to those living in symbiosis with temperate plants, in recent years, many reports describing the isolation of endophytic bacteria and fungi from tropical plants have been published. Secondary metabolites produced by endophytes are a promising source of bioactivity. The biochemical versatility and diversity of these microorganisms suggest that there are many unknown active compounds. Another important goal is the agronomic potential of endophytic fungi from tropical savannah. Bioprospecting studies have reported the potential of endophytes against a large number of phytopathogens responsible for large losses in economically important tropical crops. Thus far, the main method for controlling plant diseases is the application of chemicals. Nevertheless, chemicals cause toxic effects to humans, animals and the environment. Therefore, endophytic microorganisms have been considered an alternative for the control of phytopathogens and consequent augmented crop production. The lack of studies related to endophytes isolated from tropical environments enhances their importance. This review focuses on the potential activities produced by endophytes isolated from medicinal plants and their industrial, pharmaceutical and agronomic applications