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Paper Details

Immune Response and Pathogenesis of COVID-19 and The Strategies for Developing Target Drugs

Anju Kaushal

Journal Title:Acta Scientific Microbiology
Abstract


Current pandemic with COVID-19 disease is caused by a novel coronavirus SARSCoV-2, which started from Dec 2019 and still con-tinues. The infection is mainly started by inhalation of virus contaminated droplets. Immune response is produced by both adaptive and innate immunity. Pathogenic stages of virus in the host are asymptomatic stage, non-severe symptomatic and severe- symptom-atic stage. Major- Histocompatibility Antigens/HLA classes regulate the adaptive immune response and pathogenesis. In asymptom-atic stage the person is recovered normally. However, the innate immune response is impaired in the severe symptomatic stages with high lymphopenia in natural killer cells, but other macrophages and monocytes increased fighting the virus; hence they establish a hyperinflammatory state. Immunological regular functions are precluded mainly due to impaired immune response, because virus lapse the protective immunity by NK cells, while favoring its propagation causing inflammations in lungs and other organs such as kidney, liver, spleen etc., could be fatal in later stages.ACE-2 receptors on alveolar cells with proteaseTMPRSS2 allow the spike of virus to make them attach to the cells for easy virus entry. Monocytes and Macrophages produce cytokines can create “Cytokine storm”, a hyper inflammation in lungs. Cytokine storm is a current hallmark of SARSCoV-2 pathogenesis, is triggered by releasing cytokines GSCF, IP10, MIP1A, IL-2, IL-7 and TNF to cause breathing problem, ARDS, and lungs failure subsequently with acute cardiac injury.Evidence based medicines to integrate the clinical experience and patient values with the accurate information available, would provide best treatment for faster patient recovery

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