Surgical Field Visibility during Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: Esmolol-induced Hypotensive Anesthesia versus Hypotensive Total Intravenous Anesthesia
Mostafa Eid Mohamed Ahmed1; Mahmoud Mohamed Elsayed2; Nabil Abdelghany Sarhan 3; Mohamed Abdelkawy Fathallah4
1Anesthesia and Intensive Care Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (Assuit)
2Anesthesia and Intensive Care Department, Faculty of Medicine; Al-Azhar University
3Otorhinolaryngology, Al-Azhar faculty of Medicine (Damietta)
4Otorhinolaryngology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (Damietta)
Journal Title:International Journal of Medical Arts
Background: Functional endoscopic sinus surgery is widely practiced during daily otorhinolaryngology practice. It usually done under low blood pressure. However, the ideal hypotensive drug or technique is yet not well established.
Aim of the work: To evaluate outcome of functional endoscopic sinus surgery under esmolol-induced hypotensive anesthesia [EHA] versus hypotensive total intravenous anesthesia [H-TIVA].
Patients & Methods: 72 patients were randomly divided into two groups; Group A: H-TIVA and Group B [EHA]. After induction of anesthesia, remifentanil/ propofol and esmolol infusions were adjusted to maintain mean arterial pressure at 60-70 mmHg. After completion of surgical procedure, esmolol infusion was stopped, while remifentanil/propofol infusions were adjusted to allow restoration of blood pressure. Operative field bleeding and visibility were graded using Fromme scale. Primary outcome is the efficacy of EHA to minimize intraoperative bleeding to an extent that allows satisfactory completion of surgery.
Results: Esmolol bolus significantly attenuated pressor reflexes to induction and intubation than induction by remifentanil. Intraoperative [IO] heart rate and MAP measures were significantly lower with EHA. At 10-minures after infusion stoppage, patients of group B still had significantly lower HR and MAP, while at 10-min later, the difference was non-significant. HA minimized IO blood loss down to no to slight bleeding in 16.7% and 55.5% of studied patients and improved field visibility to satisfactory-to-good levels in 51.4% and 43.1% of surgeries, respectively. Moreover, EHA provided better field visibility, so allowed significant reduction of operative time than with TIVA.
Conclusion: Hypotensive anesthesia is safe and appropriate modality for FESS and improves surgical and clinical outcome. Both esmolol and remifentanil provided satisfactory results. Esmolol is superior to remifentanil.